KSTU NEWS №35 (2014)
Biology, ecology and fishing industry
|Domnin D.A., Sokolov A.N.||Modelling the processes for river runoff from the Vistula lagoon watershed and saltish water inflow to the Pregolya estuary (Abstract)|
River Pregolya is the main river that feeds the Vistula Lagoon. The hydrody-namic regime of its mouth is difficult, because the river bed is separated into branches, and part of the flow is directed to the Curonian Lagoon. In addition, there is a constant interplay of the river with the Lagoon. The data analysis of contact measurements has shown that the boundary of brackish water rises to 11 kilometers upstream from the mouth. The analysis of the saltish water inflow to the Pregolya River by numerical sim-ulations (by the flow hydrological model HYPE and hydrodynamic model MIKE 21), which are calibrated on contact measurements data (for 2012), was conducted. It is obtained, that the constant interaction of the river fresh and brackish waters of the lagoon takes place directly at the mouth of the river. But the penetration of the brackish water upstream from the mouth is only tracked during certain periods. Two large saltish water inflows were formed during August-September and December of 2013. The water level in the Baltic Strait, as well as the wind speed exceeding 15 mps and the west wind di-rection are the determining factors for this process. The high wind activity affects to the water surface level rise. The level in the Kaliningrad marine canal reaches the maxi-mum in 1 day after the maximum wind surge, and after 1 more day reaches the maxi-mum salinity at the boundary between the canal and the Pregolya River. Saltish water can penetrate more than 20 kilometers upstream from the river mouth, provided long-term (three days or more) influence of these factors.
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|Esiukova E.E., StontZh. I., Chubarenko I.P.||Characteristic manifestations of coastal upwelling and cascading according to the remote sensing data for the south-eastern part of the Baltic sea (Abstract)|
The main task of the investigation is to find on MODIS («Aqua», «Terra») SST-pictures of the South-Eastern Baltic those characteristic features, which allow to differentiate between the events of differential coastal cooling and coastal upwelling, even though their manifestations look much alike. The investigation is based on the data of MODIS SST-profiles were analyzed above coastal slopes during upwelling events and under conditions of autumnal cooling. The SST profiles above underwater slopes are formed as a result of joint contribution of heat exchange with the atmosphere and horizontal transport of heat from the sea. The authors have made the analysis of the satellite imag-es of October-November, corresponding to the periods of well pronounced decrease in the air temperature in the south-eastern part of the Baltic Sea and, accordingly, it corre-sponded to pronounced cooling in water above coastal slopes. The shape of the SST-profile, demonstrating the cascading, is quite conservative, not sensitive to the inclina-tion of the bottom, features of the bathymetry, the intensity of cooling and even to wind conditions, indicating the stability of the overall picture of the heat exchange between the shelf and the open sea. The materials of about 130 pictures of coastal upwellings in May-November 2000-2013 in the South-Eastern Baltic were selected and the features of the horizontal SST-profiles above the same coastal slopes were analyzed. Characteristic features of the SST-profiles during the upwelling event were defined: the decrease of the water temperature always has obvious sudden changes, frontal zones, alternation with the isothermal spots and traces of jets, the core of the upwelling (water with the lowest temperature) typically appears at the surface at some distance from the shore, which is never observed in the situation cascading.
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|Naumenko E.N., Sudnik S.A.||Species composition of zooplankton of the Kaliningrad region estuaries (review) (Abstract)|
An analytical review of the literature on the species composition of planktonic invertebrates in the Curonian and Vistula lagoons of the Baltic Sea, the largest estuaries of the Kaliningrad region, is presented. As compared to the German scientists’ data of the University of Königsberg, the genus number presented in the planktonic composition decreased while the species number didn’t change in the Curonian lagoon. There were changes in the composition of dominants. The indicator species part of о-saprobic conditions decreased from 48% to 37% and the one of o-β-mesosaprobic conditions didn’t change (23%). The indicator species number of α- and β-α-mesosaprobic conditions increased. Their part made 7% in total. The 43 rotifers taxons whish had a rank below the genus, 13 – cladocerans and 5 – copepods were not registered in the zooplanktonic composition. In the Vistula lagoon, as compared to the German scientists’ data of the beginning of the XX century, the genus number of planktonic invertebrates decreased and the species number of invertebrates increased a little. There were changes in the composition of dominants. The indicator species number of о-saprobic conditions decreased from 44% of the total number to 36 %. The indicator species number of α- and β-α-mesosaprobic conditions increased from 4% to 16%. Nowadays, the 20 taxons having a rank below the genus: 12 species and subspecies of rotifers, 2 – cladocerans, 6 – copepods, are not recorded. It is shown that changes in the species composition of planktonic invertebrates in the Curonian and Vistula lagoons are caused by increase in the trophic status of water bodies, intensification of human impact on them and can serve as a general trend illustration of the planktonic communities changes in the water bodies of the Baltic Sea basin.
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|Bobykina V.P., Karmanov K.V.||The geoecology of the Kaliningrad region coasts (based on the monitoring results) (Abstract)|
Shores of the Kaliningrad peninsula, Baltic and Curonian Spits are being developed under the influence by changing natural processes and anthropogenic factors. Qualitative and quantitative values of the coastal processes are very important characteristics of the geoecology of the sea shores. Such information was obtained in the course of long-term land-based geodesic monitoring, which is conducted by ABIORAS. General conclusion of monitoring permitted to reveal modern pattern of shores and obtained quantitative characteristic of the shore dynamics. Also monitoring permitted to reveal man's impact on all shores.First of all, there were brought out important differences between coastal processes and the progress trend of the Curonian and Baltic spits. In the main, the seashores of the Curonian spit are eroded 0.8 - 2.7 m p/year by reason of sediments deficit on the underwater coastal slope. Almost all seashores of the Baltic spit are stable and have signs of the accumulation process (except the area length 4 km in the northern part of the spit where the offshore motion of sediments can reach about 4 m p/year). All seashores of the Kaliningrad peninsula are eroded 0.1 - 0.25 m p/year. Morphology and dynamics of the shore on the western part of the Kaliningrad peninsula are checked by the receipt of anthropogenic sediments from SUE “Kaliningrad Amber Combine” in the coastal zone.The importance of man's impact on dynamics of shores is increasing permanently. The absence of nature-conservative laws promotes the development of free-wheeling holidaymaking, especially on the Baltic spit. The destruction of the front-dune is increasing. Its integrity was interrupted, also deflation activated. Houses of the settlement, which are located on the abnormal area of the northern part of the spit, have been being flooded since 2012 while storms.
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|Naumov V.A., Agievich N.A., Akhmedov I.M.||The equilibrium of bottom netting strips in the inhomogeneous flow (Abstract)|
The calculation of forms and forces in fixed nettings is the important hydrome-chanics task of commercial fishing gears. To fix this problem there are developed nu-merical methods for solving equations of the netting strips equilibrium. Earlier, the au-thors have solved the problem of the equilibrium of a bottom netting strip in the homo-geneous flow for a self-similar region of the hydrodynamic drag. It was shown that the boundary value problem for the equilibrium of strip netting fish traps can be solved by thenumerical method in Mathcad without artificial bringing to the Cauchy problem. This article uses formulas for the coefficient of hydrodynamic drag flat fishing netting around in the transverse and longitudinal direction obtained by the authors on the basis of experimental data analysis. These formulas are valid in self-similar and the transition region of hydrodynamic drag. In the calculations we used the formula that de-scribes the change of the water velocity from the stream depth. The uneven of the water velocity profile on the vertical increases with greater roughness of the bottom. Because the upper part of the netting is in the area of high speeds, great forces effect on it, and its deviation from the vertical is more than in the homogeneous flow. The improved model allows to take into consideration correctly local forces of the hydrodynamic drag acting on the fishing netting in self-similar and the transition region, to consider the influence of different parameters on the form of the netting and the amount of forces. The inho-mogeneity of the stream can significantly alter the forces acting upon the bottom net-ting.
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|Nedostup А.А., Razhev А.О.||The development of the mathematical model of the wing of fixed trap (net) catches at the excitement and in conditions of the storm (Abstract)|
Fixed hanging nets are the largest and most high-performance tools for coastal fishing, which are the main fishery instruments of the Far Eastern basin. Traps of this type are also used on the Black sea, the Caspian sea, lake Baikal, and the North of Rus-sia. Despite greater resilience against storms, fixed suspended nets are still destroyed during a big storm that fact is proved by the data of fishing organisations. The main cause of fixed nets accidents is a reduction in the reliability of their installation due to the simplification of their construction. The fishery nature of the storm-proof fixed nets is various. Mostly while the storm the separation of the net leaf from the top headline and the breakdown of dead anchors (bags with sand and gravel) occur. Incidents of the verti-cal and horizontal braces breakage, a gap between the central cable at a coastal buoy and others took place. The foregoing must be considered during designing and the operation. To in-crease the effectiveness of the design and operation of nets not only experience and in-struction of designers are required, but also the theory, allowing to study transient pro-cesses in a heterogeneous environment. This article will analyze the behavior and the storm-stability of the fixed wing of the fixed net while the waves and the storm.
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|Savotin D.V.||Computation of working configuration of a trawling system (Abstract)|
Calculation charts for determination of configuration of the trawling systems are overviewed and their common disadvantage is selected: rough simplification of configuration of trawl at which the horizontal opening of trawl mouth on wings and the headline breadth are equal. The classification of calculation charts of opening and trawling system configuration created by Karpenko V.P. was pointed out. It allows to go into detail while drawing the trawl in a calculation chart, up to headline legs and frame-clamping selection, and to apply forces of rigging maximally exactly at the place of their real action. Using the indicated classification, a new calculation chart, named 3MC1, was built. Net surface of trawl looks like a pyramid, the lateral ribs of which are formed not of selvedge lines, but of conditional lines, connecting centres selection and the net bag. Openings of the headline and of the wings of trawl are shown separately. For the decision a mathematical model, uniting equations of static balance of nodal points, elements and closed contours, is developed. The decision is realized by programming in Turbo Pascal language, the flow-chart of algorithm is presented. The mathematical model was tested on adequacy by comparing to MARINPO data of configuration of some trawling systems and as a result the high degree of accordance to the experimental data is proved.
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|Rozenshtein М.М., Savin М.V.||About the rope-net part from of a midwater trawl (Abstract)|
The form of the rope-net part of a trawl plays a big role while fishing since it should promote a free passage of fish to a bag and should not stimulate it to an exit from a netting cover. It is obvious, that, first of all, this form depends on a cycle of plates parts cutting. Besides, it is supposed that it depends on the average weighed value of landing factor of networks. Earlier the first of the specified authors had carried out the statement of the problem of optimization of constructive characteristics (the average weighed values of landing factors and cutting cycles) of midwater and ground trawls. The substantiation of criterion function in the form of dependence of resistance force of trawls parts from optimized parameters and the restrictions imposed on values of landing factors and cycles of cutting is with that end in view resulted. In the present article we present the results of experimental check of influence of landing factors on the meridian form of a midwater trawl as a result of which it is established that planting factors practically do not influence the meridian form. This fact allows us not to impose restrictions on values of landing factors.
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Food Production Techniques and Technology
|Panfilov V.A.||The agrarian-food technology: the effect of the system complex (Abstract)|
The necessity of the systematic approach and the perspective of technological complexes development are shown in the agro-industrial economy of the country. The way of development is the consolidation of processes of the agricultural technology and processes of the food processing technology into one systematic complex “The agrarian-food technology”. Principles for creating the systematic approach of the mentioned above complex are formulated. Aspects of the innovative approach to agrarian-food technologies organization and peculiarities of the technological complex structure are considered. Main principles of projecting technological complexes in the agro-industrial complex (AIK) are offered; and their system-forming factors are considered. The concept of through agrarian-food technologies is introduced. The possibility and practicability of creating in prospect system technological complexes of industrial production and processing agricultural products into foodstuffs are reckoned. The necessity of developing perspective programs of search, fundamental, applied and R&D work with state budgetary financing of through technologies of the investigated system complex is marked. For scientific and engineering ensuring of agrarian-food technologies the integration of staff training in higher educational institutions of agricultural and food sectors. The aim of the article is to open and analyse the effect of the system complex appearing under the impact of different system-forming factors while integration of productive and processing technologies of the AIK of Russia.
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|Ageev O.V., Fatykhov Ju.A.||The approach to the development of the weight control unit on the basis of methods and means of tensometry (Abstract)|
The vitality of using modern mechatronic food equipment in the fishing industry is demonstrated. The change of generations of fish processing equipment and proposed transition to mechatronic equipment is described. The composition of the mechatronic complex of primary fish processing is disclosed. The limitations of universal industrial facilities for measuring the weight characteristics of fish products are demonstrated. The necessity of the industrial developing the weight control unit for the mechatronical complex of primary fish processing is proved. The structure and basic components of the weight control unit are discussed. The construction of a load cell and its metrological characteristics is described. The choice of the force meter load cell for developing the module for the weight control unit is proved. For measuring the weight of fish and products in the weight control unit the tensometric method based on the measurement of the bending deformation of the elastic element, perceiving investigated gravity force, is selected. The mathematic description of the power meter load cell is developed. The schematic diagram of the load cell bridge is shown. The diagram of active resistors installation on the load cell girder is considered. The appointment of the force transmission device is proved. The computer based digital measuring controlling unit is developed. The characteristics of the microcomputer are considered. Tasks to be solved by the weight control unit microcomputer are listed. The parameters that affect the metrological characteristics of the weight control unit are shown. Methods for digital filtering of a load cell signal are picked out and analysed. A general picture of the unit is given. The unit operates in a continuous mode, controls the weight of batches of product and packaging the finished product, as well as performs the rejection of products not conforming to the weight limit. The weight control unit allows keeping accounting of finished products in their weight and quantity.
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|Mezenova О.Ya., Zemlyakova E.S.||Basic principles and the private production technology of secondary raw fish food to increased biological value food products (Abstract)|
The principles of processing fish waste to increased biological value food prod-ucts are proved. The food technology and dietary supplements, functional foods from fish scales, skin, bones, heads, eggs, fish entrails are studied and justified by the basic principles of recycling of secondary raw fish for food products of increased biological value. Marked quantitative ranges in the content of nutraceuticals (makronutrients), de-pending on the type of waste and fish. The features of secondary raw fish are high own enzymes activity in some textures (intestine, liver), causing their rapid auto enzymatic hydrolysis, promotes the growth of microbial contamination and causes instability in storage; high content of heat and oxilabile BAS (vitamins, lipids), which determines the needed-bridges to stabilize the composition with these components; special "fishy" smell, due to an increased number of volatile extractives components of protein-lipid nature. Given the nature of the composition and properties of secondary raw fish, as well as taking into account the possibility of a time-biotechnology, highlighted the basic principles of phased processing of fish waste on food and biologically active products. On the basis of the present principles, the Department of Food Biotechnology of KSTU offered several private technologies of food and dietary products based on or with the use of secondary raw fish: the technology of concentrate of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) - "Essencioil Phyto", intended for use as beneficiating additives in foods, the technology of the peptide concentrates as a component of protein-carbohydrate dietary supplements (gainer), the composition of which is justified for the athletes of speed-strength sports; the technology of processing caviar and herring roe (Clupea harengus membras) of the Baltic Sea Research Institute in the advanced technology of processed cheese; the technology of food additives made of sardines and pilchards scales ("Bi-oshuppe") and of sprat and herring heads ("Biokopf"); the technology of the food addi-tive "Gerogrete" on the basis of vertebral bones of cod; the technology of dried-jerked snacks based on a muscle tissue of salmon ranges, fortified with Jerusalem artichoke; the technology of biologically active compositions "Hondroeffektin" and "Proteominer-al" based on the support-frame and covering tissues pikeperch. The possibility of using cod and pikeperch skins to improve the technology of collagen, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate procurance as functional ingredients in the content of BAS of chon-droprotecting and osteotropic action was established.
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|Suslov A.E., Makovskaya A.I., Khrustalev E.I., Fatykhov Yu.A.||Energy-efficient technologies with the use of thermal pumps in the fishing industry (Abstract)|
The increase of the energy sources prices inevitably leads to the increase of pric-es to the thermal energy and, finally, to the increase of prices to foodstuffs, which requires from the manufacturer the necessity to find new alternative sources and ways of saving traditional energy sources, effective using the recoverable energy resources, in-cluding natural low-temperature heat sources. Therefore, the increasing significance takes the usage of energy-efficient technologies in the technological processes, includ-ing the usage of thermal pumps. Thermal pump installations are effective in technologi-cal processes of processing and storing food raw materials where low-temperature heat sources and recoverable energy resources are used. The independent meaning has the use of thermal pump installations in the heating and air conditioning systems in food enterprises buildings. The world dynamics of the prices increase to sources and the en-ergy itself has a steadily increasing character. Not an insignificant is also the fact that Russian entering the World Trade Organization (WTO) leads to the increase of inner prices connected with the Energetics which will verge to the world ones. In the condi-tions of Russia saving fuel and energy resources is an actual problem. For the Kalinin-grad region with its isolation from Russia, absence of necessary resources, increase of electro-consuming, the necessity to providing the energy safety the pointed problem is especially actual. In the consistency of the system the installation of the water supply close cycle (IWC) the block of water thermal preparation is not only the prime but the most power-consuming one. For the aquacultural enterprises with the systems IWC it’s often not only to heat but to cool water supplied to the system. The thermal pump instal-lation MSR –J072WLC was assembled and tested in the World centre of aquaculture of FSEI HPE KSTU. The testings were executed in summer and winter periods of a year. As the source of low-potential warmth the technical water from the plumbing was used.
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Agriculture and Nature Management
|Akhmedova N.R.||On the current state of the receiving waters drainage network of the Kaliningrad region (Abstract)|
There is excessive soil moisture due to natural conditions in the Kaliningrad re-gion. For this reason, for successful farming, most of the land in the region is drained. Many surface waters of the region are the recipients of the drainage and reclamation network. This paper presents some results of the field research conducted in the frame-work of the monitoring of the receiving drainage reclamation network of the Kalinin-grad region by employees of the Department of water resources and water use of Kali-ningrad State Technical University. Ten reclamation reservoirs with fisheries were studied. The description of their condition was conducted; key hydrometric parameters such as average and current speed, average and maximum depth, width at the water's edge were identified. In addi-tion, the hydrochemical analysis of the water was performed on the following parame-ters: dissolved oxygen, BOD5, permanganate oxidation, the content of chlorides, sul-fates, calcium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites, as well as identify-ing the color, smell at 20 °C, the pH of the water. In accordance with the standard pro-cedure, the calculated index of water pollution on the basis of which the class of the wa-ter quality of each reclamation drainage network water body was determined. The reclamation and drainage system and the drainage network of the region are in poor condition, resulting in a significant risk of waterlogging and flooding of farm-lands. Therefore, monitoring of the receiving drainage reclamation network is necessary to prevent emergency situations and to develop ways to protect farmlands from flood-ing. In addition, the results allow to assess the water quality in the receiving waters of the Kaliningrad region, and to use the obtained data while determining actions for im-proving the ecological situation in the region.
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|Kyrychenko E.V.||Soybean plants seed production at the binary seed inoculation (Abstract)|
The effect of the soybean seed binary inoculation of the compositions of bacterial (rhizobium + azotobacter) and lectin (rhizobium + soybean lectin) nature on the formation of seed production of the soybean plants was studied in the greenhouse experiments with sandy and soil cultures. It was shown that the advantage of the binary inoculants as compared with the seed bacterization of the specific for the plant-host nodule bacteria is the intensification of the process of the seed germination (in 1,2-1,3), the forming of the first real leaf (in 2,0) and plants vegetative mass (respectively, green mass in 1,2-1,5 and root mass in 1,3-1,6) and soybean harvest (in 1,2-1,3). It is the result of the growth-regulation activity of the binary inoculants as well as the higher level of the functional (specific nitrogen-fixing) activity (in 1,2-2,6) of this symbiotic systems. The maximum increase of the nitrogen-fixing activity (in 2,6 time) in sandy as well as soil cultures is marked in the phase of flowering – beginnig of beans formation at the use of the lectin-bacterial composition. The maximal effect of the bacterial composition in the soybean nitrogenase complex activation is shown in the phase of the active beans formation. Binary inoculation of seed by compositions on the basis of diazotrophic microorganisms (specific plants rhizobium and azotobacter) as well as rhizobium and soybean seed lectin as biological activity substances is characterized by the higher level of efficiency as compared to traditional seed bacterization and ensured the increase of the seed plants productivity. We propose to use the binary soybean seed inoculation as a more efficient way of the increasing seed production.
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|Larskaya I.A.||The investigation of the adventitious roots formation. The influence of the effectors (Abstract)|
The interaction of Ca2+ and obtained fractions of oligosaccharin during IAA-induced formation of adventitious roots on the hypocotyl’s segments of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was investigated. It has been shown that the presence of IAA and Ca2+ in the culture medium at the early stages of rooting is a necessary condition for the roots formation. Thus, the hormone must be added in the medium not later than one hour after the start of incubation and Ca2+ should be present in the medium from the beginning of culture before the addition of hormone. To obtain the maximum amount of roots both effectors must be present in the culture medium not less than 24 hours. The obtained oligosaccharin with the concentration of 5 μg/ml stimulated IAA-induced root formation on hypocotyl’s segments of buckwheat. However, a greater effect was reached at short (no more than 2 hours) pretreatment of explants by fraction of oligosaccharin before adding IAA (~ 30% increase in the number of roots). With the use of calcium channel blockers - diltiazem (25 mM) it was shown that IAA-induced root formation required calcium coming from the outside through voltage-dependent channels of plasma membrane. The effect of oligosaccharin’s fraction did not depend on the functioning of these channels. Thus, these data indicate that the action of oligosaccharin as Ca2+ refers to the early stages of the roots formation and precedes the action of the hormone. The possible mechanisms of interaction between the two signaling systems in the process of rooting are discussed.
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|Tropin I.V., Radzinskaya N.V., Stadnichuk I.N.||Appearance of oxygenic photosynthesis and chloroplasts (Abstract)|
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Ship Building, Machinery and Power-Engineering
|Kovalchuk L.I., Alekseev I.L.||The method of the calculation and control of the mechanical tension restrictive characteristic of diesel engines (Abstract)|
The control of the level of the thermal stress by means of thermometering has many undoubted advantages and has a real prospect of the wide application in engines of a large dimension and high tension. The implementation of this method on small high-powered diesel engines is difficult for a number of reasons of the technical and methodological nature. Therefore, during the operation the assessment of the thermal stress of the cylinder parts, in most cases, is carried out on a number of indirect options, and as the bounding characteristics are used dependencies of these parameters from the high-speed mode. The most reliable restrictive characteristic of the mechanical tension is the invariability of the maximum stresses and deformations appearing in the structural parts of the engine from the forces of the gas pressure and inertia of the moving masses. However, direct measurements of the mechanical stresses arising in the parts are not made in the operating conditions. The operating experience of the diesel vehicles shows that the assignment of modes based on the restrictive characteristics, built under certain conditions, does not reflect the impact of different operational factors on the thermal condition of the cylinder groups, which leads to either the under-utilization of construction capacities, or to thermal and mechanical overloads. In the paper, the method of the calculation and control of restrictive characteristics on the mechanical strength of parts of diesel engines on indirect parameters is presented. The algorithm of calculation, which is based on the results of bench tests of the engine by a series of load characteristics. The example of calculation of the bounding characteristics of the particular engine is shown.
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|Leschinskiy M.B., Leschinskaya G.I., Zagatsky V.R.||The innovative design of the electrolysis hydro generator (Abstract)|
The electrolysis water generator (EHG) relates to a device for the electrolytic pro-duction of a hydrogen-oxygen mixture – oxyhydrogen. The resultant gas enriched in vapours of liquid hydrocarbon compounds may be used for various flame spray tech-niques. The disadvantage of the known electrolysers is their considerable complexity, large dimensions and the system weight, the high price of nickel plates or plates of high-nickel stainless steels, and hence the entire installation. The aim is to simplify the design developed by the cell, a significant reduction in its price, with sufficient compactness and reliability, while increasing its energy charac-teristics. This goal is achieved by the fact that in an electrolytic cell, which consists of the end of their life alkaline batteries, fillers are fitted with adapters to exit detonating gas, which is given to the overall team and the line goes through the bubbler to the burner, where it is burned (patent №2508970). As the basic structure element is alkaline batteries to be disposed, the electrolyser cost will generally be substantially lower than those of all possible prototypes. The design of the alkaline battery electrode plates is made of perforated nickel-plated steel in the form of tubular elements. It has a branching surface, which is actively involved in the process of gas production, and thus at the same weight and size charac-teristics with typical EHG designs the proposed one has a higher yield of gas. Individual accumulator jars are not reported in the electrolyte, which improves the performance of the system due to the lack of "parasitic" currents heating the electrolyte. Sequential circuit of the individual jars allows you to collect the required perfor-mance installation while limiting the supply current, and thus, with the power of the law of Lenz-Joule, to reduce heat loss. Besides, the execution of the individual cell jars al-lows to make the entire unit more compact, easy to move during its operation and the use of alkaline batteries designed for continuous operation in an electrolyte substance, ensures a high corrosion resistance as the whole.
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|Umbrasas M.-R.A., Filonov A.G., Beach A.P.||Features of the water hammer in the heat pipelines after an emergency pumps stop (Abstract)|
This article presents the results of the analysis of parameters of the water ham-mer, which occurred on one of the power enterprises of the Kaliningrad region. The sudden stop of two working heating network pumps because of the emergency shut-down of the electric power became the reason. The data of ultrasonic flowmeters, which were available on hand, could not be used for the analysis because of the errors caused by release of the dissolved air and lo-cal steam formation during wave processes. Mathematical modeling of change of pres-sure and expenses in time was made for an assessment of parameters of a water ham-mer. When modeling the system of the differential equations in partial derivatives de-scribing the unsteady current of liquid was used, thus the branched part of a thermal network was presented in the form of the equivalent pipeline. The system solution was made by the method of characteristics, which allowed reducing it to the ordinary differ-ential equations, which were solved with the application of the differential method. In addition, the influence of a collapse of cavitation bubbles was considered. Calculations showed that the maximum pressure at the water hammer is about 3.5 times higher than at the stationary mode. That constituted the danger to the system equipment. In case of only one pump refusal, the pressure would be much lower and harmless. In addition, the comparison of results of calculation to the data of the KTS "En-ergy" measuring complex is given. Besides, the possibility of boiling of water in steam heaters of network water in the conditions of a water hammer was checked. It appeared that at certain parameters of network water and the heating steam, boiling of water in a heater with the subsequent condensation blow in the pipeline is very probable.
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|Sharkov O.V., Zolotov I.A., Kalinin A.V.||Forecasting a fatigue life of machine parts with the application of the finite element method (Abstract)|
Most of the parts and assemblies for fishing and food equipment are in the vol-umetric stress in the course of operation. Forecasting their fatigue life is executed by software packages with the finite element method application in which for determining the equivalent stresses the maximum distortion energy hypothesis is used most com-monly. At the same time, the theoretical results, that have been obtained using the finite element method, were not confirmed by experimental researches and the experience of industrial operation in some cases. Eccentric one-way clutches designed for gears of fishing and food equipment can be given as examples. The safety factor of the fatigue strength for eccentric one-way clutches according to the results of calculations by finite element method was equal 1,5-1,8. However, the results of the fatigue tests showed that the durability of the mechanisms may not coincide with the preset level. The analysis of fatigue durability modern models showed that they contain two main design parameters - the amplitude and the mean stresses of the cycle. While their determination by the fi-nite element method one can assume that the minimum and maximum equivalent stress-es arise on the principal plane. In the case of the volumetric stress and the effect of al-ternating loading it must be considered that the minimum and maximum equivalent stress can arise on different principal planes. In order to improve the accuracy of calcu-lations, it is recommended to use the model proposed by I.A. Birger for determining the equivalent stress in conditions of variable loading. The application of this model allows to obtain theoretical results closest to the experimental data.
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Earth and mathematical sciences
|Alekseeva S.M., Kuksov F.A., Alekseeva O.Yu.||Solving the problem of minimization of working costs on sea transport in conditions of indefiniteness (Abstract)|
The incorrect collocational parameter problem of minimization of working costs in a logistic process of container carriage on sea transport while inadequate information concerning daily operating costs for n vessels on m lines. The existing mathematic al apparatus used by logistic companies doesn’t always fit assigned practical tasks, doesn’t take into consideration specific mathematical notions and nuances, inattention to which may lead to great losses. Therefore, there’s a necessity of creating methods and algo-rithms which while using modern mathematical apparatus and computing technics allow to optimize companies activities, including cutting down transportation expenses. As the result of research the model of the incorrect transportation logistic task of managing the transportation process was built, the algorithm and the method of minimization of working costs with the usage of “Mathlab” and “Mathcad” systems were developed . On the basis of the developed algorithm the program of minimization of working costs with the usage of the programming language C# was created. This program is approved on the model task for the Baltic container terminal with three chosen container vessels making plying along two routes Kaliningrad-Rotterdam and Kaliningrad – Hamburg on which vessel daily operating costs may fluctuate in defined limits. The developed meth-od of minimization of working costs in the conditions of indefiniteness with the usage of the programming aid profitably differs in simplicity and accessibility. As the program graphic interface was developed on the language C#, that makes this program adapta-tion maximally correct for a user. Therefore, this method allows to optimize companies activities, including minimization of transportation costs, and to influence on these companies attractiveness.
Размер файла: 467Kb
|Borkunov R.Yu., Tzarkov M.V., konstantinova E.I., Bryukhanov V.V.||Peculiarities of the femtosecond laser photoexcitation of fluorescence and phosphorescence of rhodamine 6G molecules in the polymethylmethacrylate films with silver nanoparticles (Abstract)|
The fast fluorescence and phosphorescence of the rhodamine 6G molecules in the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films in the presence of silver nanoparticles by the designed and manufactured installation for femtosecond laser photolysis have been investigated. It was shown that upon femtosecond photoexcitation and registration of the photomultiplier current signals is necessary to consider the processes of reflection of an electromagnetic wave in a coaxial cable, which affects the desired signal. Modes and a technique of measurements in a series of experiments to study the kinetics of fluorescence decay of luminophores in thin films of polymethylmethacrylate were worked out. The mathematical model of oscillatory relaxation in molecules has been built and the molecules fluorescence rise time has been measured experimentally.
Размер файла: 428Kb
|Omarov S.E., Antipov Yu. N.||To some methods of solving the problem of a hollow sphere made of the composite with viscoelastic components (Abstract)|
The work is devoted to consideration of one of significant tasks of viscoelastic components mechanics, namely, calculation of composite coerced properties according to the pre-known properties of their components. For solving the problem of the nonlinear theory of inhomogeneous viscoelasticity we suggest the method of substituting integral time operators with similar ones. As the basis of the possibility of such substitutions we considered the solution of the problem on equilibrium of the hollow sphere of composite with viscoelastic components. The intercourse between stresses and deformations is adjusted. “Similar” correlations were examined according to the method of “freezing”. The elastic problem for a nonhomogeneous sphere including equations of equilibrium and boundary data was written. The boundary problem is solved with the average-out method. According to this method the task was written on the periodicity cell as well as the boundary problem for the “coerced” environment which is solved with the method of consequent approximations. The symmetric deformation of the hollow sphere under the impact of evenly distributed internal and external stresses was considered. The equilibrium equation while absence of mass forces was composed. Formulas for calculation of microstresses were received. Numerical calculation of microstresses in viscoelastic components of the investigated sphere structure period was conducted. Newton method was used for solving the task. The dependencies from time of maximal radial stress in the viscoelastic coat of the sphere of two-component simple composite while constrained parameters of components and the structure of the sphere are presented as diagrams. The dependencies of maximal radial stresses in the 1st and the 2nd viscoelastic coats of the sphere made of two-component complex composite while constrained parameters of components and the structure of the sphere are also presented as diagrams.
Размер файла: 497Kb
|Chirikov R.V., Yurova A.A.||Experience of construction of a nonlinear multidimensional integrable partial differential equation (Abstract)|
After many years of development of the inverse scattering method it became quite clear how important integrable systems of a nonlinear partial differential equation are in both physics and mathematics. Among them, the special place is reserved for the systems with four independent variables. The search of a systematical approach to the development of 3-dimensional integrable systems has become one of the most important unsolved problems in the theory of integrable systems.
Размер файла: 221Kb
Economy and Management
|Ivanov A.V., Maslyuk E.V.||Economic aspects of the Russian fishing vessels design (Abstract)|
This article covers historical aspects of the modern stage of the development of Russian commercial shipbuilding, ship classification and standardization, approaches to the development of the size series lines of the national fleet, optimization of its main characteristics and dimensions. The main tasks for the renewal of competitive fishing fleet are set, which is designed on the basis of optimized standardized ship hulls. It is noted that on the modern development stage, in particular, the state should become the chief and strategic investor during designing and building of the Russian fishing fleet of the new generation. The ideology of creating base platforms of fishing vessels should be based on complex criteria and indicators, taking into consideration construction-exploitation pe-culiarities, the particularity of fish-searching, navigation, fishery, technological and oth-er vessel equipment, reflecting particular qualities of operation of the fleet and vessels in the conditions of competition with native and foreign vessels in all fishery regions, and to pay respect to their economic efficiency in promising fishery regions. The modern methodological stage of the state fishery fleet design should be based on the preliminary determination of a variety of parameters and characteristics of foreign catching vessels of the fishery fleet, in designing of which Europeans have ac-cumulated considerable experience. Not of less importance, while carrying out engi-neering and economic groundings in determination of optimal values of main character-istics and elements of fishery vessels even in the performance of outer and intrinsic de-sign tasks, is evaluation of a vessel’s market cost, based on realization of 3 approaches to its calculation: expenses, comparative and income ones.
Размер файла: 179Kb
|Lukyanova L.M.||Models, methods and means of secure decisions objectification in the regional fisheries complex (Abstract)|
The problem of insufficient efficiency of systems management of the class “the regional fisheries complex” (RFC) is discussed. The problem of ensuring the systemati-zation of management (foremost, the systematization of acceptable decisions in the RFC) as a determinative particular factor of its fecundity is set. The necessity of appli-cation the complex of approaches (system-objective, situation-objective management, semiotic modeling) is established, improvement of which, while using in the RFC, will allow to solve the indicated problem. The axiological settings of the system paradigm, contributing correct forming of the RFC as a system of objective achievement, are de-termined. Principles and stages of forming the decisions system in the RFC are concretized. The complex of models of presenting knowledge about objectives of the regional fisheries complex (frames of objective and problem formulation, graphosemantic mod-els of sectorial thesaurus, structures of objectives (OS) and the structural scheme of ob-jective achievement (OASS), approaches, models, methods and means of objectification of decisions in the objective system (the classification of situations in objectives; the semiotic model of logic-linguistic type realizing reasonings about objectives and prob-lems; the method of logic-linguistic modeling of objectives and analysis of their struc-ture validity), and also approaches (standard, functional etc), models (“input-output”, “a black box” etc), methods ( expert ones, including expert evaluation, etc) and the training procedure of decisions in the RFC as a system of objective achievement.
Размер файла: 286Kb
|Mnatsakanyan R.A., Kharin A.G.||The value-based approach to the assessment of fishing companies and development of funding mechanisms in the fishing industry (Abstract)|
In the Kaliningrad region the fishing industry has traditionally been the basis for economic growth and the basis of ensuring well-being of inhabitants of the region. It has favorable conditions for the development of most areas of fisheries. However, in the market economy, the success of fishing companies depends not only on external factors, but also on their ongoing financial policy. The important role in herein is the use of modern companies, models and management methods. The paper investigates the feasibility of a new approach in the management of fishing companies, the essence of which is to use a modified value - a measure of Common value of the company. The proposed indicator allows to reflect all the main aspects of the company - economic, social, environmental - more closely than traditional ones. Discusses Possible directions for the use of Common value in the practice of financial management of companies are discussed and its main advantages in the case of fishing companies control are identified. As one of the promising areas of use of Common values is proposed for integration into the financial models of complex socio-economic projects. The article explains the usefulness of the value-based approach to the implementation of public-private partnership in the fishing industry. It is concluded that the proposed approach in management will be more fully taken into account in the value of fishing companies effects arising not only their business, but in related industries, as well as in a social sphere and an environmental one, and on this basis to increase the effectiveness of public and corporate policies in fishing.
Размер файла: 177Kb