KSTU NEWS №37 (2015) | Kaliningrad State Technical University
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KSTU NEWS №37 (2015)

Biology, ecology and fishing industry

Dubishchuk M.M., Lukackiy V.B.Use of the sattelite position monitoring data on fishing vessels for information support improvement of aquatic bioresources researches in the Eastern-Central Atlantic (Abstract)
The main problem in the study of spatial distribution of target species and do-mestic fishing fleet performance is averaging of fishing activity parameters with daily discretion in fishery statistics. In order to improve detail and information content of the fishery statistics data, the satellite position monitoring data on fishing vessels can be used for reconstructing the trawling positions. Based on satellite monitoring data, daily vessel reports (DVR) from the fishing and the Atlant NIRO scientific observers data in the Eastern-Central Atlantic (ECA) for 2005–2013, trawling positions reconstruction of fishing vessels and comparison of the results obtained with the actual data were carried out. It is shown that a criterion for vessel speed can be considered as the main way to reconstruct the trawling positions, because it is substantially different from vessel speed on the move or stand-by when carrying out fishing operations. Use of the vessel speed relevant to fishing operations for highlighting the trawling positions gives good results. When comparing the number of actual and reconstructed trawlings according to observers data, complete match was obtained in 52 % of cases. In the analysis of the information obtained, it was found that more than 80 % of the actual trawling positions of vessels were at a distance of 10 and more miles from those reported trawler coordinates in DVR. Thus, it is possible to claim that the approaches and principles of operational assessment of the fishing situation on the basis of information on vessels dislocation according to DVR generally gave the distorted or strongly average idea of fishing fleet work. The proposed approach allows identify the real distribution of the vessels activity in the fishing area with high spatial-temporal resolution.
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11-19
Esiukova E.E., Chubarenko I.P., Stont Zh.I.Seasonal variations of characteristics of coastal upwelling: the analysis of remote sensing data of the southeastern part of the Baltic sea (Abstract)
The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of seasonal manifesttations of the coastal upwelling in the south-eastern part of the Baltic Sea. The study was conducted on the basis of the data of the spectroradiometers MODIS (Aqua/Terra) 2000–2014. The horizontal profiles of the sea surface temperature (SST) above under-water coastal slopes were analyzed along twenty stationary cross-sections from the shore into the deep part of the sea. Сommon features of horizontal SST-profiles above the slopes have been identified and quantitative estimates of seasonal variations of the following features of this phenomenon were undertaken: (i) the temperature change be-tween the upwelling zone and adjacent waters (ΔT, °C) and (ii) temperature gradient (ΔT/Δx, °C/km). Overall, 135 episodes of coastal upwelling in May-November 2000–2014 were considered. It was found that the prevailing temperature difference between the upwelling zone and adjacent waters in the spring reaches values of 1–4 °C, in the summer of 2–4 °C, and the fall of 3–5 °C. In spring the smallest range of the temperature difference is observed, while in summer it expands and reaches the maximum value – up to 14–15 °C. In spring, the temperature gradient is in the range from <0.5 to 1.5 °C/km, and in summer it increases up to 3.5 °C/km due to the Heel peninsula region. Upwel-lings with wider range of ΔT/Δx (from <0.5 °C/km to 2.5–3 °C/km) were observed in autumn most frequently in an area off the coast of the Hel peninsula. The resulting estimates suggest that there are quite obvious manifestations of seasonal variations of features of coastal upwelling in the south-eastern part of the Baltic Sea.
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20-29
Tkachenko H.M., Kurhaluk N.N.Oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defenses in the muscle tissue of sea trout (SalmoTrutta M. Trutta L.) affected by ulcerative dermal necrosis syndrome (Abstract)
Antioxidant defense system (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidative capacity), and oxidative stress biomarkers (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, carbonyl derivatives of oxidatively modified protein) in the muscle tissue of sea trout (Salmotrutta m. trutta L.) affected by ulcerati-ve dermal necrosis (UDN) syndrome were determined. In both males and females, protein oxidation in the muscle tissue of UDN-affected trout showed higher values as compared to the respective healthy specimens. UDN syndrome induced an increase of lipid peroxidation only in males. Decrease of antioxidant defense enzymes as well as total antioxidant capacity in muscle of both males and females of UDN-affected trout was ob-served. Glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense system and endogenous superoxide dismutase and catalase play a pivotal role in intracellular antioxidant defense against UDN-induced oxidative stress. This study encourages efforts to extend the knowledge of oxidative stress biomarkers for the identification of Aeromonas-induced disorders and specific responses of fish typical of the UDN syndrome.
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30-42
Trufanova I.S.Sex ratio of the baltic herring (Clupeaharengusmembras L.) in commercial catches (Abstract)
This paper represents sex ratio analysis of Russian commercial Baltic herring catches in the 26th ICES subdivision of the Baltic Sea. According such aim materials collected by observers of FSBSE «AtlantNIRO» on fishery vessels during 1992–2014 have been processed. Monitoring of the fish population’s sex ratio allows to evaluate the status of the stock due to its exploitation and environmental changes and helps to set fishing mortality level. Moreover, Russian commercial catches consist of two ecological groups of spring-spawning herrings. There are coastal herring of the Southern Baltic and open-sea herring. Each of them is characterized by its own sex ratio what influences this parameter in whole catches and requires regular research. As a result, information about quantity of males and females in caught herring has been received. Differences in the number of females in two mentioned groups are determined. Also material includes length-sex structure of the species’ catches. The female percentage is different in five fish length classes and two forms. The spatial aspect of sex ratio has been analyzed. Female abundance of whole caches and groups is different in the shallow coastal and distant seaward sites of the water area of exclusive economic zone and territorial sea of Russia. Long-term period is described by female percentage fluctuations as a whole and in two forms. Additionally, there is an attempt to compare this interannual sex ratio changes of herring catches and its ecological structure.
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43-52

Industrial fisheries

Minko V.M.About analysis models of the process of fishing (Abstract)
There are considered the results of mathematical modeling of the process of fi-shing trawls. Work of several authors – V. N.Chestnoi, V. A. Ionas, V. N. Lukashov, M. M. Rozenstein, etc are used. It is received that in general the various properties of the tra-wl depend on speed of trawling, harvested species speed, the distance from the plane of the mouth of the trawl where fish reacts to trawl, the maximum and minimum range of responses of fish to trawl, the mouth of the trawl and certain other technical characteris-tics. The content of the individual models is assumed that fish leaves from the area of cap-ture in the direction perpendicular to the velocity vector of the trawl, i.e. parallel to the plane of its mouth. The author of the article shows that fish can leave the zone of capture also under certain angle to the plane of the mouth. This can significantly increase the proportion of area of the trawl mouth where fish can avoid capture. The results of the analysis are given that can be useful in improving the technology of trawling.
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55-62
Naumov V.A., Akhmedov I.M.The numerical method of solving three-dimensional problem of the spherical body balance on the cable in a flow (Abstract)
Cables are an important part of the commercial fishing tools. Analytical and numerical methods are used for calculation of the shape and the efforts of the trawl rope part, and purse Seine. Previously, the authors proposed a simple and efficient algorithm for solving numerical method in Mathcad plane problem of the spherical body on the rope balance in the fluid flow. This article describes three-dimensional formulation of the problem in self-similar hydrodynamic region. The auxiliary functions are introduced to bring the system of equations to the normal form. The dimensionless form of the equations of equilibrium was possible to establish three criteria of similarity tasks. An effective algorithm for solving numerical method in Mathcad three-dimensional tasks equilibrium system cable-sphere in the fluid flow. The results of calculations made itpossible to analyze the impact of the criteria of similarity to the shape and tension of the cable. The dependence of the lateral hydrodynamic force acting on the cable, the ratio ofhydrodynamic forces and weight of the spherical body (rope) in the water is shown. The developed algorithm allows to improve the accuracy of calculation para¬meters of the fishing gears rope part.
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63-72
Nedostup A.A., Razhev A.O., Sokolova E.V.The problem statement of creating a mathematical model of thelake beach seine (Abstract)
The lake beach seine is fishing net gear, operating on principle of overlapping water column. The gear of lake beach seines can be used to total (lakes area up to 100 ha, blocking the water column from the surface to the bottom) or sector-specific methods of fishing (in the presence of islands or other obstructions). The main processes of the fishery in relation to beach seines are casting of seine and haul of seine. For modeling of these process dynamics need theory, which allows determining the forcing (loading) and space-temporal characteristics of all sections of net gear during entire time interval. This article describes the problem statement of creating a mathematical model of interaction between beach seine elements and interaction this elements with external environment (water, air, ground) when exposed to various external factors: the external environments (water flow, waves), the fishing (casting, haul). This mathematical model can be used both to describe the dynamic processes occurring in the elements of beach seine and simulation on a personal computer.
Размер файла: 402Kb


73-80

Food production techniques and technology

Vorotnikov B.Yu., Ustich V.I.Problems of industries processing raw materials, the creation of industrial clusters and formation of new technology platforms (Abstract)
Historical reconstruction of the technological processes of the fishery sector has identified the key stages of its evolution -Pretecnological, Technological, Intertechno-logical, Transtehnological, overtechnological. Description of the characteristics of the individual stages in the evolution of technology makes it possible to determine the scope of limiting their opportunities and uncover innovative ways to reach out to a high level of development. The versatility of the disclosed technology trends evolution is confirmed by the example of other fundamentally different industries and raw material sources – amber, oil. The essential concepts – industry, industrial cluster, a technology platform is identified through the "prism" of evolutionary technological approach. A new concept – "Field of opportunities" is added, which provides a broad view of technological space. There is a trying to predict the emergence of new products and processes. The question of convergence of different technological areas of opportunities as one of the promising ways to develop science and technology is discussed. Along with the issues of industrial and innovative development raises the question of the reform of higher education in accordance with the socio-technological needs of society. In fact, the authors approach to addressing the fundamental structuring of information and the development of the state science and technology policy in the technological sphere.
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83-91
Mezenova O.Ya., Baydalinova L.S., Vorobiev V.I., Mezenova N.Yu., Lazukova A.A.Use of fish scales in the technology of food and feed products (Abstract)
The chemical composition of scales of the bream, sardinella, pike perch is considered. Amino-acid and fatty acid compositions of proteins and lipids of scales are defined on which basis indicators of their biological value are calculated. The structure is identified of mineral substances of scales of a sardinella, the bream and a pike perch. The fat and acid structure of lipids of scales of a sardinella is revealed. Hydrolysis of scales is carried out by a fermentation method with collagenase enzyme usage, and also from proteases of a microbic origin of an alkalaza, sour and neutral proteases. There is established rationality of development of dietary supplements for sports food on the basis of hydrolyzates of scales and bee products. The technology is developed, products of sports food on a gelatinous basis are received, their chemical composition is established and recommendations about the usage for athletes of high-speed strength sports are developed. Rational use of scales of fishes as a part of compoundings of forages for fishes in an aquaculture is shown. The way of receiving feed additive from scales with application of frictional crushing and the schematic diagram of processing of colagen containing fish raw materials is developed. Efficiency of application of such additive as a part of feed for a bird, pigs, rabbits, minks, fish is shown.
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92-101
Nazarova O.M., Isakova T.S.Technology of rye and wheat quick bread of the functional orientation with complex usage of flax seed (Abstract)
Improvement of a compounding of traditionally domestic product – rye white bread is proved. Results of market researches showed that 93 % of the interrogated inhabi-tants of PrimorskyKrai use bread daily, and more than a half of them support aspiration of producers to expand the range and quality of bakery products, are ready to buy bread of a functional orientation. For increase of a nutrition value of rye and wheat quick bread and giving of a functional orientation to it flax seed infusion with full replacement of water for a dough batch, and also the flax seed meal crushed to a paste like state is entered into a compounding of bread. On the basis of pilot studies rational ratios of water and a seed of flax are revealed by production of infusion – 2 kg of flax seed on 10 l of water. Flax seed infusion influence on process of fermentation of dough and quality of ready bread was studied. The technological scheme of production of rye and wheat quick bread with use of infusion of a seed of flax and its meal is developed. Organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators are investigated, the chemical composition of bread is analysed. Po-sitive influence of addition of flax infusion and oil meal on indicators of acidity, porosity and specific volume of bread is revealed. On the basis of an organoleptic assessment established periods of the validity of bread – 48 h. Recommendations about the usage of a new functional product as a protective diet are offered to people with diseases of a digestive tract and airways also to people with diabetes. Development allows expanding the range of the domestic bakery industry, to raise a nutrition value of bread.
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102-112

Agriculture and nature management

Antsiferova O.A.Features of moisrure regime of eroded brown soils of hilly plain agrolandscapes in dry year (Abstract)
There are presented the results of study and estimation of water-physical properties and dynamics of moisture in crops of winter rye on the areas of brown soils varying degrees of erosion.The profile of a sandy-loam brown soil is differentiated on silt. In the horizons enriched with silt the porosity decreases. The reserves of productive moisture in soil are satisfactory. Humidity of sandy-loam brown soil till the middle of April on all the profile was higher than the field capacity, and in a period from May to June it was optimal.There was marked accumulation of moisture on the horizon with a high content of silt. Strongly eroded sandy brown soil has the low maintenance of humus. The reserves of productive moisture is low. Narrow intervals between values of soil- hydrological constants are characteristic. Therefore transition from one category of humidity to another are carried out quickly. The period of moisture lack in strongly eroded sandy brown soil on a slope made about 40 days in phases of development of a winter rye from blossoming to wax ripeness. It led to the deterioration of biometric indexes of productivity of winter rye. Power of the washed soil (diluvium) makes over 130 cm. Formation of the soil happens due to accumulation of the sandy and sandy-loam material which is washed away from slopes. The soil experiences periodic overmoistening: the short-term superficial and constant ground water. Owing to a close bedding of ground waters there is a saturation of the soil capillary moisture during the spring period. In summer 2014 the contrast regime of moistening was observed. The main reason for the decline in yield the lowering of relief was overlapping seedlings sandy diluvium in the autumn and winter period in the development of water erosion.
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115-124
Dobieshch M., Rydzynski D., Margas M., Ziolkovska A., Adomas B., Piotrovich-Cieslak A. I.Protein in long-term storage of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) (Abstract)
Due to a high protein content and a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria the faba bean (Viciafaba L.) is very important for agriculture. It is considered to be one of the main sources of easily accessible protein and energy in Africa, Asia and Latin America. An average protein content in the faba bean seeds is about 27–28 %. The faba bean seed proteins are composed of two basic fractions, globulins and albumins. Albumins 2S contained in seeds perform the storage protein function. They are a valuable source of sulfur and nitrogen for developing embryos due to methionine and cysteine contents. They protect seeds of plants against pathogens, as well as inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. In the current study, the authors analyzed protein contents, 2S protein content, 2D-electrophoresis profile after 27 years of storage at –14oC and 20oC. Faba bean seeds stored at –14 oC germinated better in comparison to seeds kept at +20oC. Seeds stored at –14oC germinated in 95,6 %, while those stored at 20ºC did not germinate. For seeds stored at –14 oC, the content of 2S proteins was similar and amounted to 2.2 % for two varieties (Nadwiślański and Dino). The content of these proteins was lower in seeds stored at +20oC and amounted to about 1.3 %. For both seeds cultivars there were considerable differences between maps rendered for proteins stored at –14oC and +20oC, which suggests that storing conditions have a great influence on the seed protein make-up.
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125-131
Margas M., Zhiolkovska A., Dobiezh M., Rudzynskiy D., Adomas B., Piotrovich-Cheslak A.I.The effects of tetracycline concentration on pea (Pisum saivum L.) and lupine (Lupinus Luteus L.) seedlings (Abstract)
Consumption of antibiotics has gradually been increasing. The use of tetracyclines is comparatively inexpensive, that is why this group of antibiotics is applied extensively, both in human and veterinary medicine. Excreted with faeces or urine, still active antibiotics or their bioactive metabolites become a source of environment contamination. Tetracyclines can exhibit a negative impact on plants which absorbed the antibiotic contamination from soil together with water. The conducted research was aimed to estimate the influence of tetracyclines on guaiacol peroxidase activity in lupine and pea seedlings. Moreover, the influence of tetracycline on elongation of roots and shoots of leguminous seedlings was examined. Seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinusluteus L.) and pea (Pisumsativum L.) were germinated for nine days in PHYTOTOXKITTM plates (MicroBio Test, Inc., Belgium). The soil was supplemented with tetracycline (Sigma-Aldrich) at final concentration of 0,01; 0,05; 0,1; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 25; 50; 100 mM. The length of seedlings was measured. Peroxidase activity was determined based on spectrophotometric detection, the absorption rate increase was measures in room tempereature at the wave length of 470 nm. The toxicity effect of tetracycline was exhibited both on lupine and pea seedlings. An increase of oxidative stress enzyme activity enhancing the generation of reactive oxygen species.
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132-138
Panasin V.I., Rymarenko D.A.Agro-ecological aspects of soil organic matter status of the Kaliningrad region (Abstract)
Organic matter defines the basic properties of the soil – its fertility. Almost all of the physical and physico-chemical properties of humus horizons of soils depend on the content and composition of humus. Defiened the content of organic matter in agricultural land Kaliningrad region. Was found the dependence of the organic matter content of the type of agricultural land. Fractional composition of humus by Ponomareva and Plotnikova method are defined in more than 150 samples of mineral soils of different particle size distribution. Regional features of the fractional composi-tion of humus soil farmland Kaliningrad region are detected. The relation of the acid-base properties of arable and humus-accumulative horizons of soils with a group and fractional composition of humus are discovered. It was found that as the neutralization of the soil absorption complex reduced mobility of humus and increases the relative proportion of nonhydrolyzablehumic substances. Established correlation between the content of mineral nutrition of plants and organic matter. The dependence of the total content of heavy metals on the composition of humus is found.
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139-148

Ship building, machinery and power-engineering

Alexandrov I.S., Gerasimov A.A.Correlation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of chlorobenzene, as representative of technically important organic working substances (Abstract)
Literary data on coefficients of thermal conductivity and viscosity of technically important hydrocarbon –chlorobenzene are collected and critically analyzed. The most reliable data suitable for joint fitting are chosen. Basis of the array of experimental data was included in the fitting procedure consisting largely of results of complex research of thermophysical properties of halogenated benzene, executed in 60–70 years at Azizbekov institute of oil and chemistry. Based on the most reliable experimental data, the equations for calculation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of chlorobenzene have been developed. The proposed equations can be applied over a temperature range from the triple point to 700 k with pressures up to 100 MPa. The equations were developed in variables «temperature-density». There was used the fundamental equation of a state of chlorobenzene for density calculation at a known temperature and pressure received by authors. Along with determination of coefficients optimization of a form of the correlation equations was made. The method of random search with return at an unsuc-cessful step with the analysis of the importance of each term of the equation was used. The article presents the results of the comparison with the available experimental data. In addition, the article presents diagrams, calculated on the basis of the equations and allows concluding good extrapolation behavior of the offered equations. The proposed equations correctly reproduce the surface of state and allow the calculation of thermophyscal properties with accuracy that is close to the experimental error. The estimated uncertainties of viscosity calculated using the new equation do not exceed 2 %, and of thermal conductivity – 3 %. In the specified range of temperatures and pressure of the equation are received for the first time.
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151-159
Burakovskiy E.P., Burakovskiy P.E., Nechaev Yu.I., Prohnich V.P.Management and decision-making in the control of emergency situations of fishing vessels on the basis of the dynamic model of disasters (Abstract)
The problems of governance and decision-making are discussed at the operational control of emergencies operational durability of fishing vessels. Implementation of ma-nagement and decision-making is carried out in the on-board intelligent systems of new generations, operating in real time. Control algorithms of the emergencies are based on a dynamic model of disasters in multiprocessor computing environment. As competing computing technologies there are considered neurofuzzy and neyroevolutional systems. There are considered practical application of the developed computational technologies in problems of operational strength at different levels of perturbations in a complex dynamic environment.
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160-177
Burakovskiy P.E., Nechayev Yu.I.Algorithms construction of situation control when wave overlaps the bow by methods of modern catastrophe theory (Abstract)
Interpretation of tanker "Nakhodka" emergency related to wave "overlap" the bow is based on a dynamic model of accidents depending on the degree of uncertainty of the current situation. Formalization of uncertainty is based on the idea of the situation as weak, large and full of uncertainty. In conditions of considerable uncertainty and weak interpretation of the dynamics of the vessel is based on the representation of external disturbances in the form of climatic spectrum and describe the dynamics of an object based on the traditional methods of analysis of dynamic systems. In the context of total uncertainty the process of emergency control is carried out based on the methods of modern catastrophe theory and fractal geometry. Scenarios of the current situation are generated based on fractal geometry and the dynamic model of disasters. Designed structures correspond to the strength and stability loss condition at the repetetive tanker bow immersion. Diagnosing the disruption of interaction model normal functioning using fractal geometry display pulsating dynamics "potential well" is based on a forecast procedure implemented in the framework of fuzzy formal system-board intelligent system. The decision on the presence of parametric failures in the control stability and strength shall be accepted provided the membership function exceeds a predetermined level. Management decisions are implemented using the logical system of knowledge. As a result, the speed of the vessel and wave-to-course angle is selected corresponding to the conditions of safety of the ship in the test situation.
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178-185
Ivanov A.P., Kozhevnikov V.A., Sheverdyaev A.S.Research results of technological operations of vessels cases formation (Abstract)
The methods of the research process installation sections (blocks) in the formation of the hull on the stocks and the results of such a research. The developed technique which is based on mathematical modeling technological operation is a component of methodology of technological processes research of ship case structures assembly and welding for the purpose of labor productivity increase reserves identification in main types of ship-building production. Modeling of operations and their research are carried out by two criteria of works duration efficiency and energy consumption of performers. On the basis of options analysis of the conducted operations on case structures installation some actions are offered to increase the labor productivity when performing the case assembly works on the stock.
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186-196

Earth and mathematical sciences

Bojarinova N.A., Kikot A.V., Naumov V.A.Features the results experimental studies statistical processing of random function, obtained by different authors (Abstract)
The model example of the experimental studies processing results of the four authors of a random function Y(X) is considered In Mathcad performed combining values from experiments using the method of least squares the equation of the linear regression. It is shown that the homogenization throughout the array data model example has led to qualitative errors. It is projected weak ascending descending random function. The reason for this, is absolutely incorrect result that the realization of a random function by different authors were obtained for different ranges of argument X. Difference formula, widely used in the calculation of the coefficient of hydrodynamic drag of a flat netting in crossflow, results of further research due to the fact that the procedure of averaging of numerous experimental data was conducted for the whole set of test results obtained at different ranges of the argument; could get the test results, the accuracy of which is questionable. It is concluded that in the General case, you cannot perform an averaging of the results of an experimental study of a random function on all the data of different authors, as this may lead to significant errors. Recommended by the following sequence of processing the results experimental studies of a random function obtained by different authors: approximation each realization of a random function suitable analytical dependencies, with the exception of misses; tests of statistical hypotheses about the ownership of existing realizations of a random function; averaging of analytical dependences obtained in the first stage.
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199-206
Funtikov V.A.Voltammetry of vitreous systems (Abstract)
Until now, voltammetry is mainly used for chemical analysis of aqueous solutions, and for the chemical and phase analysis of metallic alloys voltammetry is used as a local electrochemical analysis. We first study voltammetry applied to glassy alloys of low and high electronic conductivity. Voltammetric method for physico-chemical analysis of glassy semiconductor systems is created. Designed voltammetric method allows determining the composition of nanostructures glassy semiconductor systems. Principles of the new voltammetricphysico-chemical analysis of vitreous systems with electron-hole conductivity applied to the study of vitreous systems with high electrical conductivity Tl-Ge-Te, Tl-As-Te and low conductivity Tl-As-Se and Tl-As-Se-Te . Glassy alloys of telluride systems have sufficiently high conductivity, so their analysis used a modified technique of local electrochemical analysis (LEA). Selenide glass of the systems Tl-As-Se (cross section As2Se3-Tl2Se) and Tl-As-Se-Te (cross section TlAsSe2-TlAsTe2) have a sufficiently low electrical conductivity and therefore belong to the so-called high-resistance glasses. Voltammetry using a modified LEA method is not suitable for the study of such samples. Therefore, for voltammetric studies of this type chalcogenide glasses the paste technology is applied using coal paste electroactive electrode (CPEE). It was established that the voltammograms glass characteristics of systems Tl-As-Se on section As2Se3–Tl2Se and Tl-As-Se-Te on section TlAsSe2–TlAsTe2 are associated with the selective electrochemical etching of glasses nanostructures based on individual compounds from which its glassy network is composed.
Размер файла: 488Kb


207-218

Economy and Management

Yafasov A.Ya., Kostrikova N.A.Development of the coastal zone of the South Baltic in new geopolitical conditions (Abstract)
The export-oriented model of coastal areas development as exemplified by South Korea and China was not implemented in the Kaliningrad region. The stringent policy of the European Union on protection of its market has forced the Kaliningrad region to develop in accordance with the Latin American model focusing on the domestic market and import substitution. Although opportunities for economic and productive integration of the Russian enclave with coastal areas of the neighboring EU countries were created after obtaining the status of a Special Economic Zone. The politicization of the EU relations with Russia can be seen in the context of the construction of the nuclear power plant, the deep-water port and the "Nord Stream" branch line in the Kaliningrad region. In this case, the missed opportunities of coastal areas of the EU can be compared to the missed opportunities of the Russian enclave. Under current conditions, the development strategy of the enclave can be summarized as lobbying major projects with a huge budget component by the relevant ministries and departments. The component enables to ensure the development of the region, if not systematic, not optimal but development.
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