KSTU NEWS №38 (2015) | Kaliningrad State Technical University
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KSTU NEWS №38 (2015)

Biology, ecology and fishing industry

Chechko V.A., Chubarenko B.V., Pilipchuk V.A.Features of sedimentary conditions and hydrological caracteristics for small harbours of the Vistula lagoon (Abstract)
The results of lithological and hydrological studies in the areas of small harbours of the Vistula lagoon are presented. Basing on matter and grain size distribution of bottom sediments as well as salinity, temperature and water transparency the conditions of sediment dynamics in small harbours were analysed. It was shown that in the harbours which are linked with the lagoon via channel or river (e.g., Ushakovo, Krasnofolotskoe, Primorsk) stagnation conditions with oxygen depletion are formed: black muddy sediments with hydrogen sulfide, and an absence of benthos. In the harbours with free water exchange with the adjacent lagoon area (Hydro-aviation harbor in the Kosa settlement of the Baltiysk, Klainingrad Yacht-Club) regular wind-wave caused resuspension and sediment transport are prevail. Sediments are of different grain size, well oxygenated and are the good basis for benthos development. The detritus of shells, fragments and whole pieces of a shell, the fingerprints of bioturbation, live water worms Marenzelleria viridis, as well as new invasion species – mollusk Rangia cuneata (Bivalvia, Mactridae).
Размер файла: 258Kb

Bernikova T.A., Krivopuskova E.V., Nagornova N.N.Concentration of chlorophyll "a" and interconneted with it hydrological characteristics of river Neman in the area of abuilding Baltic Nuclear Power Station (Abstract)
This article has given the results of the multipurpose monitoring of the river Neman in the area of the abuilding Baltic nuclear power station which was conducted by employees of the Department of Ichthyology and Ecology KSTU in the 2014. As result the authors have given the interrelation of chlorophyll "a" with several hydrochemical characteristics of water. It is shown that the annual circle of chlorophyll "a" is largely determined by water temperature. At the same time, changing of the content of oxygen, permanganate oxidability and to some extent conductivity of the water depends on the rate of photosynthesis. Some analyzed parameters were interconnected: the oxygen produced by photosynthesis, is spent on the oxidative processes; permanganate oxidation - increased with increasing concentration of chlorophyll and decreased by oxidation. Biogenic elements on the monitoring stations on the river Neman were not limited. At station four (below city Sovietsk) recorded the existence of some source of pollution (apparently, the discharge of sewage water from the city). According classification relation between the trophic level of water bodies and the concentration of chlorophyll, adopted in the Russian Federation, the trophic level on monitoring station on river Neman in May- July was eutrophic, starting from end July it was mesotrophic (but on station below Sovetsk at the beginning of September was eutrophic). The pH and content of ammonia significantly exceed the valid values according the requirements for fishery water bodies.
Размер файла: 397Kb

Naumenko E.N., Sudnik S.A.Species compozition of rotifera (Rotifera Cuvier, 1817) of the Kaliningrad region estuaries (review) (Abstract)
An analytical review of the literature on species composition of planktonic rotifers (ROTIFERA Cuvier, 1817) of the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons of the Baltic Sea, which are the largest estuaries of the Kaliningrad region, is presented. Detailed investigations of the rotifers species composition in the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons were carried out by scientists of the University of Königsberg in the early XX century. During that period the rotifers community of the Curonian Lagoon was characterized by a great variety and represented by 86 species which belonged to 33 genera. At the present day, rotifers are represented by 79 species belonging to 29 genera. As a result of the investigations, 29 species and subspecies of rotifers, which had not been previously indicated in the rotifer community composition of the Curonian Lagoon, were found. At the same time, compared with the data of the Königsberg scientists, 43 species and rotifers subspecies did not occur as a part of the zooplankton composition. According to the German scientists, the rotifers inhabiting the Vistula Lagoon were represented by 26 species and subspecies belonging to 13 genera. In recent period, rotifers are represented by 35 species and subspecies belonging to 14 genera. 12 taxa lower than rotifers genus that had never been recorded previously in this basin were found. At the same time, compared to the century ago data, 11 species and subspecies of rotifers have disappeared. There a general trend of the species composition dynamics of rotifers in the estuaries of the Kaliningrad region, associated with the reduction in prey species and predominance of small species, is noted. Such dynamics is a characteristic of the eutrophic water bodies.
Размер файла: 357Kb


Industrial fisheries

Nedostup A.A., Razhev A.O.Development of emotion model for irregular period, basis on wave profile and water mass velocity field (Abstract)
Fishing gears and aquaculture cages are non-stationary modes in non-uniform flow and the presence of waves. These factors need should be considered when designing and operating guns of fish is done. To increase the effectiveness of the design and operation of fish-criminal guns and cages aquaculture requires not only experience and instruction designers and producers of aquatic organisms, but also the theory that the research to transients occurring in a heterogeneous environment [1]. This article proposes a mathematical model of the interaction of water masses with a fishing gear and aquaculture cage in the presence of flow. Discusses two basic models: “pressure-velocity” and “vortex-flow function”. For the mathematical description of the model uses the Reynolds equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. The field of turbulent viscosity of the fluid described by models of Prandtle-Pocket and Sekundow. To find the pressure field on the velocity field proposed to use the method of weak compressibility. The link field of the vortex and the current function mathematically described by the equations of Poisson and Helmholtz. Define boundary and initial conditions for the “pressure–velocity” and “vortex-flow function”. In boundary conditions to set the speed of the water at the lateral boundaries using the parabolic profile. I found the field of pressure calculated pressure forces and friction acting on each element of the fishing gear and aquaculture cage, from the water mass needed to calculate its power and space-temporal characteristics.
Размер файла: 303Kb

Akhmedov I.M., Naumov V.A.The drag hydrodynamic coefficient of a curved rope (Abstract)
Ropes are widely used in various industries and transport, are an important part of the tools of commercial fishing. Many of the fishing gear shape of the rope is different from straightforward. To find the force of drag acting on a curvilinear rope, you need to know the integral hydrodynamic drag coefficient. Published experimental data are analyzed. The empirical dependence of the integral drag coefficient on the deflection angle is increasing. It has a minimum on relative deflection. The latter effect is a consequence of the use in the drag coefficient calculation as a key determinant of the chord length size, not just rope. The integral drag coefficient of curvilinear rope are used for comparison of experimental results of different authors, the value of which varies from zero to one. The experimental data are transformed into the same coordinates: the integral drag coefficient of curvilinear rope and slack angle. It is shown that the drag coefficient of curvilinear rope increases with deflection angle increasing. Numerical method solved the boundary value problem of equilibrium of a flexible, inextensible string of neutral buoyancy, fixed at two points in a uniform flow. The calculation results are in good agreement with experimental data. The similarity criterion tasks quadratic in the field of hydrodynamic resistance is a dimensionless force of tension in the curved top of the rope. When solving boundary value (differential) the tasks to the local coefficient of drag hydrodynamic of the curved filament is completely determined by the coefficients of the drag of an infinite cylindrical rod elongation (longitudinal and transverse flow) and the local attack angle.
Размер файла: 279Kb


Food production techniques and technology

Baydalinova L.S., Melnikova V.A.Proof of potential inclusion broccoli active components in powdered coffee substitutes with raw materials of vegetable origin: jerusalem artichokes (Abstract)
Jerusalem artichoke is recognized one of the most valuable and medicinal crops of XXI century, widely used in many countries in Europe and America. In our country people started to use artichoke in diet and general nutrition only recently. We justify the choice of Jerusalem artichoke as the main raw materials of plant origin with the development of new technology of functional products, as well as a review of its application areas. The value of Jerusalem artichoke as a fodder, vegetable, technical and medical culture is due primarily to its chemical composition, which can vary depending on the biological characteristics of varieties and soil and climate conditions, including agricultural machinery, weather conditions, the growth, as well as geography. At the Department of Food Biotechnology "Kaliningrad State Technical University" conducted a study on the establishment of powder coffee substitute from Jerusalem artichoke. Regular consumption of the beverage provide human active substances and inulin is very suitable for the prevention of diabetes and other diseases. The technology of this coffee beverage can further enrich it with other valuable components. The questions of the study the possibility of using biologically active substances of broccoli - indole-3-carbinol, sulforaphane, sinergin - to create a functional coffee substitute based on artichoke for people with impaired carbohydrate metabolism. The possibility of use of a coffee substitute developed for the cancers prevention. The main issue is becoming a way of combining two sources of mineral raw materials like Jerusalem artichokes and broccoli in the prepared beverage.
Размер файла: 387Kb

Vorobjov V.I., Nizhnikova E.V., Lempert O.T., Nefjedova N.P.The alternative sources of obtaining fish meal analogues (Abstract)
The fish industry is producing fish meal with 50-78% of protein content which is used for feeding animals and poultry in the amount of 2-10%, and in fish farming to 60% by weight of feed. World production of fish meal is at the level of 5 million tons per year when 9 – 10 million tons and has a steady tendency to decrease. According to official data of the Ministry of agriculture of the Russian market demand of fish meal is 420 thousand tons, while its production is at the level of 70 – 80 thousand tons. According to representatives of the feed industry, the demand for fish meal is 900 thousand tons. The increasing scarcity of fish meal in Russia also contributed to the drastic reduction of fishing fleet (depreciation 80%) and outdated processing technology, which is energy intensive and require large quantities of raw fish.The situation with expensive fishmeal contributed to the emergence of broad-spectrum counterparts and counterfeits. Experts estimate that the counterfeit products occupy a huge market share of fishmeal Russia (80%). At the same time in the fishing industry has a significant amount of under-utilized fish collagen raw material, which could be an alternative source to replace part of fish meal in compound feeds. As a result of the studies, we have developed an efficient method for processing collagen-containing fish waste, which allows to obtain fish or fish feed additive organic fertilizer. Obtained by the new method fish feed additives were included in the granulated and positively tested in the cultivation of animals, birds and fish. The method is implemented in industrial production.
Размер файла: 294Kb

Hoeling A., Volkov V.V.Proteins from by-products – innovative components in sustainable industrial production (Abstract)
Proteins are interesting natural materials with high economic potential for application in industry, which were largely forgotten besides food processing industry. From economic and environmental points of view (food or fuel discussions) residues and by-products are much more preferred protein sources. Proteins from residues and by-products can be cost-effectively extracted using non-chemical technologies. Technology by ANiMOX is a hydrothermal extraction and modification process for production of protein hydrolysates. Under specific pressure and temperature proteins are extracted from their matrix and splitted into peptides and amino-acids. By adjusting process parameters we can change the characteristics of the final products, their quality and building-up of by-products. Liquid reaction suspension can be technically easily divided into 3 fractions (fat, protein solution and mineral sediment). Fractions are separately converted into final products. The weight of the major share of molecules lies under 10 KDa thanks to the hydrothermal splitting. This improves their digestibility and makes them very attractive for application in food and feed production. At the same time, during the splitting process the proteins build up reaction groups at the chain ends, which can facilitate a large number of physiological and chemical reactions. The protein products can be used for feeding stuff, food, biopolymers, tensides, cosmetics, etc. This article provides the main results of business calculations for a protein factory functioning with this technology. Based on the results of 20 tests with fish raw materials from the Kaliningrad region realized by ANiMOX and KSTU in 2014-2015 we can expect that at the planned protein factory 80 % of the proteins contained in the raw materials will be extracted and protein content of 95 % in the protein hydrolysates will be achieved.
Размер файла: 461Kb


Agriculture and nature management

Ziolkovska A., Dobieshch M., Rydzynski D., Margas M., Adomas B., Piotrovich-Cieslak A.I.Phytotoxicity of sulfonamides soil pollutant to lupin (Lupinus Luteus L.) and pea (Pisum Sativum L.) plant (Abstract)
Antibiotics are widely used in human and veterinary medicine as preventive and therapeutic measures. Sulfonamides are synthetic antibiotics used to treat infections in humans and animals. Plants have unimpeded access to sulfonamides in soil due to low sorption of this group of antibiotics. The study showed a negative effect of sulfamethazine on the growth of pea and lupin seedlings. The highest sulfamethazine concentration caused reduction of root growth in comparison to roots of control seedlings to 94 and 79%. To compare, a decrease in the growth of pea seedlings in the same concentration was 28%. A similar sensitivity to increasing sulfamethazine concentrations was observed in lupin shoots. In soil without sulfamethazine the seedlings were longer and amounted to 45 and 32 mm respectively for lupin and pea. Pea shoots were more sensitive to sulfamethazine than lupin shoots. In the highest of the tested sulfamethazine concentrations lupin and pea shoots elongation was suppressed respectively by 90 and 91%. It was proven that the activity of guaiacol peroxidase in lupin and pea roots rose together with an increasing contamination of soil with sulfamathazine. The seedlings of lupin which grew in soil contaminated with 100 mM sulfamethazine concentration demonstrated nineteen times higher peroxidase activity compared to control seedlings. The enzyme activity in pea roots in the same concentration increased by 60%. The dynamics of seedling growth proved to be the best indicator of soil contamination with sulfamethazine. Lupis is a good bioindycator of soil contamination with sulfamethazine.
Размер файла: 275Kb

Kondratiev M.N., Budarin S.N., Larikova Yu.S.The effect of furanocoumarins of “Ammifurin” preparation and aqueous extract from the stems and fruits of cow parsnip Sosnowski (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden) on growth and development of crops (Abstract)
In the synusiae of the hogweed Sosnowski over three years, a high density of the crop soil surface covered with a layer of litter (dead leaves, stalks, pieces of bark of the stem, fruit) and there are no representatives of other species of herbaceous plants. The authors suggest that this may be due to the impact on germinating seeds furanocoumarins contained in all the organs of vegetative plants hogweed. It has been revealed that the aqueous extract of the autumn-winter litter from plants hogweed Sosnowski did not have an inhibitory effect on the growth and development of plants radish and oats. On the other hand, an aqueous solution furanocoumarins "Ammifurin" strengthened attractive the ability of root-crops radish and oats panicle that was accumulation of dry weight by these organs. In addition, furanokuma-widths "Ammifurin" increases the amount of grain in a panicle of oats that were accompanied, waited a decrease in mass of 1000 seeds. It has been suggested that the components of the litter with hogweed plants did not contain furanocoumarins, which could hinder the growth of other plants in synusia this species. On the other hand, the effect on seedlings furanocoumarins depends on the type of test-culture of furanocoumarins concentration in the test solution, physiological condition of the seedlings and the duration of exposure to the root system. In other words, it is impossible to claim that extremely furanocoumarins have inhibitory effect.
Размер файла: 467Kb

Rydzynski D., Margas M., Ziolkovska A., Dobieshch M., Adomas B., Piotrovich-Cieslak A.I.Evaluation of phytotoxic activity of ciprofloxacin towards common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) (Abstract)
Medicinal products commonly used may cause harmful effects to the environment. Active substances of pharmaceuticals occur not only in hospital waste or surface waters but also in rivers and seas. Major metabolites or active ingredients can be excreted in urine and faeces. In nature, the excreted substance can operate for some time, depending on the environmental conditions, soil type, physical and chemical properties of the substance. Active substances in excrement can enter arable land when they are used as fertilizers. Antibiotic contamination has repeatedly been demonstrated in habitats in Europe, North America and Asia. One of the frequently detected antibiotics in the environment is ciprofloxacin. Ciprofoxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-(piperazin-1-yl)-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, used for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems, bacterial infections (pneumonia), urinary tract or skin diseases. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates have increased in the past years in almost all bacterial species. The effect of ciprofloxacin to common duckweed and yellow lupin was investigated. In line with increasing concentration of the medicine, yellow lupin roots elongation and common duckweed fronds growth were inhibited. The content of chlorophyll in tissues decreased with increasing doses of ciprofloxacin. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin with the use of biological (Lemna Test, Phytotoxkit) and biochemical (biogenic amines) methods.
Размер файла: 349Kb

Kozachenko I.S., Grigorovich L.M.A distinguishing characteristic of Caramba fungicid application for the crops of rape (Brassica napus ss. oleifera Metzg.) under agroecological conditions of Kaliningrad region (Abstract)
In the regional agriculture production of Rape (Brassica napus ss. oleifera Metzg.) is one of the leading crops, taking up from 15 to 22% in the structure of crop areas, as agroechological conditions of the Kaliningrad region meet the main demands of the culture to grow. However, in case of winter rape cultivation there arise the serious difficulties with overwintering, as the lasting vegetation period in the climatic conditions of the region threatens to cause plant overgrowing diseases. The plant vegetation decreases considerably due to the negative disease influence and accelerated plant growth for the long daylight hours which results in seed yield drop. Setting of favourable conditions for plants through introducing modern techniques into the technological schemes is one of most urgent problems of today in the rise of seed productivitr of rape agrocenosis. Including of Caramba fungicide into the program of plant protection made possible to settle the disease control problem and increase plant lodging resistance. Our experiments on including Caramba fungicide into the technology of spring rape cultivation permitted to rise the seed yield of this culture compared to the non-treated variants 1.4-1.7times as much: on the treated plots the yield amounted to 29.2-35.4 hundreds kilograms per hectare. Usage of Caramba fungicide in the protection system of spring rape served to increase the seed yield by 10.4 hundreds kilograms per hectare compared to the controlled, while the yield productivity on the treated variant reached 31.9 hundreds kilograms per hectare.
Размер файла: 258Kb


Ship building, machinery and power-engineering

Zhukov V.A., Pallag S.P.Alternative energy sources: some results of studies of sea waves energy converters (Abstract)
Last decades in EU countries, first of all like Germany, Austria and Denmark, the industrial power plants are actively and successfully used in practice, thats allow to use renewable energy sources, which reduce the dependence of the national economy on the availability of fossil fuel and at the same time improving the environment habitat. Appearance of the economically payback devices, reformative energy renewable sources such as solar radiation, wind and sea waves, was due to painstaking works of scientific collectives of that field of knowledge, that have been begun in the middle of the 70s of XX-th century. Search for a possible alternatives of traditional internal combustion engines on board sea-going vessels is actively being pursued since 80s and 90s last century. In Russia, such work was carried out at the "Theory of the ship" and "Ship Power Plants" Departments of The Kaliningrad Technical Institute for the Fishing Industry (KTIFI). The inspirer of scientific research in this direction was a professor N.B. Sevastyanov [1-5]. In subsequent years the results of the theoretical research and a series of experimental tests were generalized. The paper presents the bases for usage alternative sources of energy, such as energy of sea waves. The analytical model for calculating the pendulum system, allows to design the schemes to transform the energy of sea waves into electricity proposed by professor N.B. Sevastyanov and Eng., Junior V.A. Zhukov. The series of experiments on a bench simulating the pitching and yawing of the ship were held in a research laboratory of the"Theory of the ship" Department KTIFI in 1992, allowed to verify the performance of the proposed scheme and confirm the fidelity of the theoretical calculations. Some of the results obtained during these experiments are also presented in this article.
Размер файла: 1.4Mb

Alexandrov I.S., Gerasimov A.A.Prediction of boiling heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant in the evaporator of the heat pump by artificial neural network (Abstract)
Based on the experimental data the new artificial neural networks model is developed for predicted calculations of heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant in the evaporator of the heat pump. Basis of the array of experimental data was included in the fitting procedure consisting of research results of power characteristics of heat pumps, executed in research laboratory "Heatpump Systems" of the Moscow power institute. Measurements were taken on experimental apparatus which scheme is provided in article. Working substances was refrigerant R134a. Based on the specified experimental data training of a two-layer backpropagation neural network was made. Training of a neural network was provided on a Levenberg - Marquardt method. For elimination of effect of retraining of a network the procedures of testing and validations was made. The results of comparison of the values of heat transfer coefficient calculated by the trained neural network with experimental data are presented in article. The average absolute deviation of heat transfer coefficient calculated using the trained neural network do not exceed 2,6 %, and the root mean square - 5,84 %, that corresponds to an experimental error. For check of predicted opportunities of a neural network the results of modeling of heat transfer coefficient depending on various parameters of process are presented in article. Modeling was carried out in areas of the parameters significantly exceeding experimentally investigated range. Results of modeling show the correct physical behavior of heat transfer coefficient that speaks about good extrapolation opportunities of the trained neural network. The results received in this work can be used for design and calculation of heat pumps and refrigerators.
Размер файла: 258Kb

Fedorov S.V.Thermal model of the lubricating film with HD and EHD lubrication (Abstract)
For the case of the failure of the lubricant film under hydrodynamic lubrication is considered a common thermodynamic theory of strength. According to this theory the failure occurs when the internal energy density (potential and thermal components) in the volume of material reaches a constant for a given material. It is considered a special case of this theory, when only take into account the density of heat (kinetic) component of internal energy. This is due to the kinetic peculiarities of accumulation of internal energy of liquid materials. This condition determines the limit state for liquid lubricants-mineral oils. Practical solutions to this criterion successfully solved using convenient criterion-temperature flashes in the volume of lubricant film for the case of hydrodynamic lubrication. Offers for setting conditions the seizure calculation equations under friction with lubricant (hydrodynamic lubrication). It is shown that the criterion-specific power of friction depends on the critical density of internal energy of oil. When analyzing the regularities of friction under EHD lubrication take into account two separate and possible effects. The first is regularities of plastic deformation (states and properties) at Herzian contact of solids. The second is the state and properties of the oil film in full the urregular and hydrostatic compression. The original structural model of oil film by EHD lubrication in the form of a rotary oscillating cells with elastic interactions with each other is proposed. This is similar to the Rayleigh-Benard cells. Quite it is possible the size of the cells have an order about nano level (type fulerena or mechanical quantum). The oil film dissipates energy in the direction of relative motion of bodies. This oil film has the highest dissipative properties. Here, the work of the external forces almost completely dissipated these oil film structures. The concept of temperature for such film has almost no meaning. . Load the film with EHD lubricant is very high because it is elastic and reversible energy dissipation.
Размер файла: 642Kb


Earth and mathematical sciences

Rozen N.B.Problems of setting goals in development of a website of the department of computer science and information technology BFFSA (Abstract)
The main problem in determining the goals of creating a web site of the Department of computer science and information technologies BFFSA is the lack of the necessary theoretical base and offer many practical approaches to this issue. The article collected, analyzed and systematized the proposed purpose of the development of information resources of various universities and departments. It is shown that the most important in defining the objectives is the "human factor". This is due to the subjective idea of the role of information resource persons determining the order, the complexity of determining the exact quality criteria of the finished product. The project is also largely dependent on the previous experience of the developer. The authors prove that the basis of determining the objectives of an information resource are "intuitive decisions" or decisions based on "common sense" that leads to a simple translation of traditional forms of presentation in electronic form and significantly reduces the effect of the application of new technologies. The conclusion about expediency of application of system analysis in the definition of the goals of the information resource is made. As a theoretical base of study the stakeholder theory which is a part of the resource theories of strategic management has been selected. The necessity of using the technology of BIG DATA for the implementation of the website. Advantages of this approach for students and teachers are formulated. The study main objectives were formulated to develop the web site of the Department. It is the acceleration of the provision of educational, methodical and informational materials, a qualitative change in their structure, and use of cutting edge technology, BIG DATA, improving communication between participants of educational process, development of on-off use of electronic resources, the formation of loyalty to a selected high school, the Department, their history and culture.
Размер файла: 359Kb

Groshev G.A., Masal A.V.Program complex for estimation of electromagnetic compatibility of radio electronic means (Abstract)
In this paper the authors present program complex for estimation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), combining the results of studies of methods and models for estimation EMC [1-7], and also algorithms and programs that are implemented in the programming environment Visual C#. In the discussion attention is paid to the functionality and practical use of the program complex. The architecture and basic elements – database, computational modules, the representation of the results, interface are considered. It deals with the storage and presentation of tactical and technical data of radio electronic means (REC) in the database that is physically implemented on the basis of an Access database. Request data for computing modules is carried out using language integrated query C# (LINQ). The characteristic of the detailed results of the estimation of the EMC, which allows you to get complex. Discusses the results of a complex and dueling estimations of the EMC in the event of various types of interference. Methods and algorithms for estimation of the EMC based on frequency-limited models characteristics of RES. In [1-4], it is shown that this approach allows for a detailed estimation of interference taking into account the different mechanisms of interference. In [6] presents the results of the study used mathematical models the characteristics of the power spectral density of the radiation and the characteristics of the frequency selective reception channels. These models take into account the frequency characteristics of the spurious emissions at harmonics and sub harmonics and reception channels, which are formed due to the interaction of the harmonics of the input signal with harmonics of the heterodyne of the receiver.
Размер файла: 1,89Mb


Economy and Management

Koryakina A.V., Mnatsakanian A.G., Teplitsky V.A.The main problems and factors determining the investment policy and the direction of its development in the russian fishery complex (Abstract)
In this paper, from all available literature concepts of investment policy we consider its manifestation in the fishery complex of Russia. The article describes the main problems and factors that determine the investment policy and the direction of its development in the Russian fishery complex. The development of fixed capital in Russia’s fishery enterprises is constrained by the presence of a number of problems. All problems can be divided into internal and external. If the solution of internal problems is largely dependent on the capabilities and resources of the fishery enterprises, external problems must be addressed comprehensively, in the general system of the country as a whole. In this case, the principles of industry are combined with the principles that are specific to the investment policy of commercial organizations. From the point of view of formation of sectoral investment policy of fishery industry it’s interesting to determine the need for investments aimed at the development of production assets, primarily fixed assets. Therefore, in this study a real investment should be considered, and among them the problem of determining the need for investment resources for the development of fixed capital of industry in the main areas of its activities should be limited in the first stage. The article determines a necessity of a development of the production assets such as fixed capital in all major areas of fisheries industry including the fleet. The usefulness of financial leasing is also determined, and the problems of its application are stated. The development of industry-regional leasing companies is highly recommended. Lastly, the article brings readers’ attention to some external problems of the formation of the industry 's investment policy.
Размер файла: 187Kb