KSTU NEWS №39 (2015) | Kaliningrad State Technical University
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KSTU NEWS №39 (2015)

Biology, ecology and fishing industry

Gorbunova Ju.A., Domnin D.A., Chubarenko B.V.Analysis of scenarios for agricultural sector development in the Plegolya catchment as a determining factor of nutrient load (Abstract)
Intensity of the nutrient load from the catchment area of the Pregolya and its possible changes greatly depend on the socio-economic development scenarios of the region. A comparative assessment and analysis of the current agricultural status of the Pregolya catchment area in the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation and the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of the Republic of Poland have been performed. Prospects for long-term development in accordance with the existing documents on strategic planning of these countries have been reviewed. Transboundary catchment position causes a diverse socio-economic situation in its different parts as the two countries have developed different systems of management and decision-making. The area actually used for plowing in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship is 3 times bigger than in the Kaliningrad region (where less than 50% of available land is used). Indicators of animal breeding are also higher there, for example, the number of cattle is 7 times bigger. Further socio-economic development of Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship and environmental measures (including nutrients runoff prevention) depends on the implementation of the European Union program "Development of Eastern Poland in 2014-2020". However, it does not presuppose a significant increase in agricultural production. Analysis of the "The long-term strategy of socio-economic development of the Kaliningrad region" suggests increase of arable lands of 70%, cattle stock of 3,5 times, the main crops harvest of more than 2 times. In the case of the implementation of these plans nutrient load from the catchment area will significantly increase–both diffused from croplands, pastures and point sources from livestock complexes.
Размер файла: 421Kb
Stont Zh.I., Gushchin O.A.Air temperature changeability on the South-Eastern area of the Baltic sea according to D-6 ice-resistant platform (2004-2013) (Abstract)
Air temperature changeability has been analyzed for the last 10 years on the basis of monthly observations within the ecological monitoring held from the ice-resistant platform D-6, which is situated approximately 20 km from the sea shore. In comparison with the second part of the XX century the average annual air temperature and the average monthly temperature of the warmest month in the year (August) has increased. The minimum of the annual temperature changes is registered in February. The average monthly air temperature is more changeable in winter and less changeable in August. Both common patterns of the longstanding air temperature changeability and regional differences have been revealed. Positive increment of the average air temperature was observed only in summer. Negative increment was observed in winter; autumn and spring trends are less negative.
Размер файла: 485Kb
Shibaev L.V.Bio-technology of stimulation of two generations of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus, L) under artificial reproduction in experimental fish-breeding department of the plant “Zapbaltrybvod” (Abstract)
The article describes the results of experiment on the impact of temperature regulation on incubation duration of whitefish eggs from the Curonian Lagoon in the condition of recycling water supply system. The standard incubation temperature is 2-3 °C, and the incubation is carried out for about 100 days. This period matches incubation duration in vivo (December-March) and depends on temperature conditions of the Curonian lagoon. Hatching of larvae occurs in spring under gradually increasing temperature up to 7-8 °C. This scheme is quite efficient, but it allows incubation of only one batch of eggs, with the results that 1) it is possible to lose all aggs in the event of force majeure, 2) being utilized no more than 1.5 months of the year, the larvae basin is inefficiently used. Experiments have shown the ability to produce two batches of eggs. The first batch was incubated at 2.6-2.8 °C during 54-65 days up to the stage of "eye." Then some eggs were moved to the second circuit and its further incubation was carried out under gradually raising temperature from 2.6-2.8 up to 6.5-8 °C during 18-30 days. After this hatching began which took within 5-6 days. The second batch of eggs was further incubated at the same initial temperature of 2.5-2.8 °C during 35-42 days. Then, in order to stimulate hatching the temperature was increased up to 7-8 °C with 0.5°C grade per day. Thus, the incubation period for the first batch of eggs varies for 89-93 days, for the second batch-125-130 days. When the second generation of larvae appeared and had to be transferred to the larvae basins, the first generation was big enough to go to fingerling basins and give the place for the first generation. The three-year experience in the application of this scheme of whitefish incubation showed no difference in survival and growth rates of fish of different generations.
Размер файла: 250Kb

Industrial fisheries

Lvova E.E., Sukonnov A.V.Experimental research in abrasive sliding friction of new fishing materials (Abstract)
When a fishing gear is in operation it is exposed to interaction with soil, surfaces of working elements of the deck machinery, rolls and guiding units, which leads to its deterioration and destruction. There is no special parameter describing the degree of friction influence on the wear resistance of filamentary fishing materials in the domestic industry. In this connection, the paper deals with the development of methods for defining numerical value of the resistance parameter of the abrasive wear for the filamentary fishing materials. In order to validate the method an experimental unit which simulates a process of interaction of fishing gear elements with different surfaces and a fishing gear ramp in particular has been designed and produced. Apart from this experimental works on estimation of the resistance parameter of the abrasive wear have been carried out, and numerical values for new fishing materials have been obtained, produced under trademarks “Olivin”, “Polistil”, “Magnit-Green”. The obtained results can be currently used for better selection of the fishing materials for construction of fishing gear.
Размер файла: 369Kb
Naumov V.A., Akhmedova N.R., Akhmedov I.M.Dependence of hydrodynamic drag coefficient of a flat network on the attack angle (Abstract)
The hydrodynamic drag coefficient of a flat network is the basis for the calculation of the forces acting on fishing gears. Published empirical formulas describing the dependence of the hydrodynamic drag coefficient of a flat network on the attack angle have been analyzed. There are many empirical formulas obtained from the analysis of experimental data, which are only true in a narrow range of parameters. It has been proposed to use in the analysis of the concept of the modified hydrodynamic drag coefficient in a flat network. It is the difference in the hydrodynamic drag coefficient at arbitrary attack angle and at zero attack angle to the difference of the coefficients, taken in the transverse and longitudinal flow. It is shown that the most used generic formulas, equitable across the range of attack angles α represents a power function of the angle α sine. Recommended values of the factor n in the published work range from 0.8 to 2.5. The comparison of experimental data with calculation results of the modified drag coefficient of a flat network for different values of the exponent is perfromed. If we take into account the entire range of attack angles (from zero to 90 degrees), the smallest standard deviation is obtained for n = 0,65. The obtained value of the exponent cannot be considered to be final. Verification is required according to the experiments of other authors, as well as conducting control experiments.
Размер файла: 271Kb
Nedostup A.A., Makarov V.V.Problem statement of drawing dimensionless dependencies of immersion process of the purse seine net wall (Abstract)
In December 2014 in the course of research of the sinking rate of the purse seine (PS) bottom line in the presence of lateral flow model experiments were carried out in the experimental channel of "MariNPO". The purpose of the experiments was to obtain visual material for further processing and development of a working theory to determine the sinking rate of the purse seine bottom wall under condition of lateral flow. According to the developed research methodology 3 models were built which had been sunk with 3 different loads of the bottom line. During research the time and depth of the bottom line sinking were measured. Considering the results of the research dependencies diagram have been plotted. When analyzing the graphs a theory of bottom line shift of the purse seine under conditions of lateral flow. The dependence of the parameters affecting the immersion of the seine and the deviation from OY axis has been considered; the dependency between the flow rate and the length of the purse seine has been defined. All the parameters are divided into 2 groups: fixed and variable, described immersion procedure and the forces affecting immersion of the seine.
Размер файла: 748Kb

Food production techniques and technology

Ageev O.V., Fatykhov Ju.A., Babarykin K.V.Development of a mechatronical device for portioning fish products on the basis of spatial parallel structure mechanism (Abstract)
Rationale for using modern mechatronic equipment for portioning fish products is presented. Main problems of implementation of portioning process are described. Drawbacks of existing portioning machines are disclosed. An innovative solution that provides increased productivity and improved quality of the finished product is proposed. The device is proved to be effective due to the construction on the basis of spatial parallel mechanism. The advantages of the parallel structure mechanism, compared to the serial structure mechanisms are listed. Hard joining rods provide lack of backlash as well as increased rigidity and load capacity of a mobile platform which makes it possible to attach a cutting tool on it. The desired trajectory of the cutting tool relative to the fish fillet is achieved though consistent change of angular and linear positions of rods and levers. Due to the high speed of the parallel structure mechanism, cutting of fillets is performed without stopping of conveyor. Quality improvement of fillets is achieved by improving the accuracy of positioning of the cutting tool fixed on the end-effector, and by the rigidity of the kinematic chain connecting the end-effector with the actuator. The basic scientific problems in the construction of a device for portioning based on hexapod are formulated. The geometric model of the parallel mechanism in the form of a hinge linkage, which shows the position of an arbitrary point in the center of the end effector manipulator, is given. The structure of the device for portioning including a parallel mechanism, load cell module and video-computer module is described. Triangulation scanning of fillet using video-computer module is used in the device, which allows obtaining digital image for subsequent processing. Information about the shape and size of the fillet allows calculation of the optimal position of the cut line and the coordinates of the motion path of the cutting tool, provided the rational use of the meat. Diagrams of the experimental model for portioning fish products are shown, and its operation is described. The basic research objectives to create a methodology for designing a portioning device are listed.
Размер файла: 380Kb
Panfilov V.A.Food security of Russia and the sixth technological mode in Agro-Industrial Complex (Abstract)
In connection with an orientation of the government economic policy on a gradual liberation of the domestic agro-industrial complex (AIC) from imported technologies, machinery, equipment and resources a choice of the strategy for AIC development in the threshold of its entry into the sixth technological mode is of great interest today. A technological mode is a complex of basic innovative (for its time) technologies, ensuring a quantitative and quantum leap in the development of the production forces of the society. The origin of the agroindustrial complex is associated with the development of the third technological mode (1880-1940), which is characterized by technological progress in agriculture and processing industry in the presence of predominating manual labour. The fourth technological mode was formed in 1930-1990. It is characterized by the creation and implementation of machinery systems in agriculture, automated production lines in processing and food industry, which are combined in the finally established national agro-industrial complex. The fifth technological mode (1985-2035) implies innovations in the field of microelectronics, information technology, genetic engineering and biotechnologies, the use of new energy and new materials. Transfer to the technologies of the fifth technological mode in all sectors of AIC is significantly delayed. The outlines the sixth technological mode which are already formed in the developed countries, based on the use of high technologies. Implementation of these technologies is intended for large-scale agricultural and processing enterprises which ensure food security of the country. The paradigm of AIC development should be formed on the following basis: implementation of the Food Security Directive of the Russian Federation; creation of large agricultural and processing enterprises, integrated into system complexes; revival of the domestic agricultural and food engineering; development of rotor systems processes; manpower training for system complex technologies.
Размер файла: 286Kb
Hoeling A., Grimm T., Volkov V.V., Mezenova N.Yu.Proteins from fish by-products as innovative copmponents of sport nutrition (Abstract)
The interest for active peptides of natural origin is constantly growing in sports nutrition. Fish by-products are a potential source of such peptides, which were subjected to biotransformation by specific enzymes and thermal degradation in order to obtain the fragments of molecules less than 10 kDa. These peptides are characterized by high digestibility, showing ergogenic properties, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Four types of hydrolysis were studied in order to obtain low molecular weight active peptides. These are thermal, enzymatic, enzymatic-thermal and enzymatic-thermal with a preliminary washing of raw material by water. Vertebral bones, heads and scales of sardines and sardinelles were used as raw materials. Chemical and fractional compositions of protein and sedimentary pats of hydrolyzed system were identified. The molecular weight of the peptides and their number were defined. Enzymatic and enzymatic-thermal types of hydrolysis are recommended as the most rational in order to obtain maximum yield of protein fractions with molecular weights less than 10 kDa (98.1% and 91.7% respectively). Hydrolysates of fish scales protein are the most preferred by the results of chemical analysis and organoleptic characteristics. They are used with bee products (honey, bee pollen, bee bread, propolis) for combination of multicomponent dietary supplements for sportsmen of speed-power types of sports.
Размер файла: 518Kb

Agriculture and nature management

Andriichuk A.V., Tkachenko H.M., Tkachova I.V., Vartovnik M.S.Oxidativestress amongequine athletes of ukrainian warm blood and hol steiner breeds during physical exercise (Abstract)
The chronic exposure of regular training seems to improve adaptation ability and antioxidant defense. However, intense physical exercise imposed on equine athletes can lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercises on oxidative stress biomarkers in well-trained Ukrainian warmblood (UWB) and Holsteiner horses. All the horses were involved in regular training of different kind of equestrian sport (show jumping, eventing and dressage). Our results suggest that training session leads to different consequences on oxidative stress biomarkers in the blood, plasma, and erythrocytes of both breeds. Training session caused decrease of the level of 2-thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) in erythrocytes of horses of both breeds, while no significant changes of these parameters in blood and plasma were observed. The difference in TBARS level during rest and training periods is most likely a consequence of different levels of oxidative stress occurring in tissues and erythrocytes. Significant changes in TBARS content and lipid hydroperoxides level in the erythrocytes and plasma of UWB horses after training were noted. Lipid peroxidation in the blood of horses of both breeds during physical exercise was significantly different. It is likely that factors such as duration, intensity, fitness, breed, athletic ability, health, and environmental conditions have an impact on the occurrence or intensity of oxidative stress and damage. The level of oxidative stress markers in the blood of sport horses can be sensitive and informative parameters for the assessment of horse performance.
Размер файла: 600Kb
Antsiferova О.А.Seasonal dynamics of optical density of sulfuric acid extracts as a reflection of soil humic substances mobility in the conditions of humid cultivated land (Abstract)
Investigations were carried out on two key sites in the Zelenograd district of the Kaliningrad region, within the Sambiyskaya hilly moraine plain. Optic density of extracts was measured (at a wavelength of 440 nm), obtained by the treatment of fresh soil lots 0.1n H2SO4 at a ratio of soil to solution of 1:5. Weather conditions during the study period (November-December 2013) were close to the long-term average. Soils with acidic reaction of the humus horizon were studied. Staining of sulfuric acid extracts is on 83% stipulated by the presence of organic substances of fulvoacid nature. In gleyic soils of hilltops and slopes found weak correlation between optical density moisture dynamics has been found. In soils accumulating geochemical flows substances connection with moisture is of average degree (gley burozems and little humus content of sod-gley soil of surface of long-term waterlogging). The higher humus content is, the more marked the amplitude of the seasonal changes in the optical density is and the closer correlation with moisture is. The maximum seasonal variations in the optical density have been revealed in high humus content sod-gley soils of closed depressions with acid reaction of the humus horizon. Monitoring of pH dynamics (water and salt extraction) on different soil areas is carried out. Seasonal dynamics of pH in the humus horizon of soils with various degrees of hydromorphism is equal to 0.3 - 0.5. In most soils tendency is observed of increase in optical density of sulfuric acid extracts in November and December. At the same time, pH is reduced by 0.2 - 0.4. This is due to the accumulation of decomposition products of fresh herbaceous vegetation litter in an acidic reaction of environment.
Размер файла: 475Kb
Antsiferova О.А., Vasilyeva O.V., Yanchevskaya O.A.Aggregate compositionof soils of different hydromorphic degree in hilly-moraine cultivated lands (Abstract)
The research was conducted in July - August 2013 in cultivated landscapes of the Zelenograd district of the Kaliningrad region within the Sambiyskaya hilly moraine plain. The aggregate composition of soils in two fields with the acidic reaction of the plough layer has been studied. The structure of the humus horizon of arable gleysolic burozem (brown earth) on the tops and slopes of hills is lumpy-cloddy or cloddy-lumpy. The aggregate condition is satisfactory. There is no connection between the amount of humus content of agronomical valuable aggregates in sandy loam and light loam soils. Mechanical strength of the units depends on the content of physical clay. Gley sod-podzolic soils and burozems of light loamy and medium loamy at the foot of the hills and in the open depressions are predominantly cloddy. Aggregation is affected by particle size distribution and moisture regime (waterlogging in some periods by slope waters, forming of perched water). Increased degree of hydromorphism and heavy granulometric composition in soil catena leads to deterioration of the aggregate composition of burozems (brown earth) and sod-podzolic soils. The sod-gley soils in closed microdepressions when humus content is equal to 2.5 – 4.0 % have mostly cloddy structure. It is formed under the influence of periodic flooding of surface, which prevents aggregation of the soil mass. The longer the period of flooding is, the less patterned is the soil. In spring, the soil of closed depressions is plowed in wet or damp condition. The sod-gley soils of closed depressions with high humus content are characterized by a lumpy structure and good aggregate state. To create optimal conditions for the formation of soil structure liming of acid soils, cleaning and repair of drainage; slotting, disclosure of closed microdepressions and deep subsoil loosening; sowing grass as well as organic fertilizers are needed.
Размер файла: 243Kb
Chesalin S.F., Smolskiy E.V., Bokaturo N.N., Ageshin A.G.Cultivation of forage crops on radioactive contaminated territories (Abstract)
As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident a considerable part of the territory of the south-west of Russia became polluted by radionuclides. One of the major tasks to be solved during the works on recovery of the agricultural lands polluted by radionuclides after the accident is development of the technologies providing production of ecologically safe forages as well as standard net livestock products (meat, milk) on their basis. Difficulties of obtaining livestock products meeting the standard requirements for the contents 137Cs on forage lands are caused by a variety of reasons. The main part of137Cs (from 60 to 90% depending on soil types) still is in the surface soil layer enriched with a non-mineralized part of vegetable remains. Besides, the root of vegetative plants that causes increased absorption of radionuclides by herbage is located there. Studies on cultivation of forage crops in the conditions of radioactive environmental pollution were conducted on a practice ground Bryansk State Agricultural University in the Novozybkovskiy district of the Bryansk region on the sod-podzol sandy soil. It was found that among one-specific crops grain forage crops – oats, one-year ryegrass, Sudan grass and millet – underperform in the level of productivity depending on fertilizers background by 1,5-3,7 times as compared with yellow lupine. Consistently increasing doses of potassium (K180 and K210) had rather weak impact on increase in productivity of one-specific crops of forage crops. Under the influence of potash fertilizer input of 137Cs in the yield of forage crops decreased. The guaranteed obtaining of forage crops with acceptable level of137Cs provides introduction of potash fertilizer in K210 dose.
Размер файла: 369Kb
Yusov A.I., Avdeeva E.V., Bedareva O.M., Muracheva L.S., Matyukha A.V., Morzhikova M.А.The role of water landscape of park ecosystems in urban environment optimization (Abstract)
Water bodies such as ponds and lakes have been at all times used in creation of parks. There is a system of artificial water bodies on the territory of Max-Asсhmann-Park having a direct impact on vegetation. Max-Aschman-Park is notable for floral and phytocenotic diversity. There are 142 genera and 210 species of herbaceous vascular plants; woody plants belong to 29 genera and 44 species. The dominant among silvicultural plant communities are species belonging to families, which accounted for a significant percentage of edificators: beech (Fagaceae), birch (Betulaceae), maple (Aceraceae) and willow (Sаliсасеае). Dynamic equilibrium of tree and shrub vegetation is conditioned by external regulation, as well as special microclimate which is formed by virtue of the park aquatic ecosystems. The paper presents the results of the chemical analysis of water and the species composition of the microbiota. The minimum values of nitrites and nitrates contrasted to the excessive value of ammonia indicate low speed of the aerobic phase of the nitrogen cycle in ponds and thus increase in the rate of biological oxygen demand and acid capacity. Microbiological analysis of the water in the lakes under study was carried out, during which 16 genera of bacteria were found: contamination with saprophytic bacteria (Bacillus) was found in water samples ofall bodies of water; contamination by coliform bacteria was detected in water samples from ponds No. 3, North brook; highly hazardous is Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in water samples of North brook, because it is a pathogen causing serious human diseases.The article proposessome solutions to environmental problems associated with primary and secondary pollution of water bodies.
Размер файла: 250Kb

Ship building, machinery and power-engineering

Guralnik B.S., Satin V.V.Considering limiting weather conditions in preparation of projects for towage of drilling platforms and other objects of marine industry (Abstract)
The paper suggests using the information on “weather windows” and duration of storms in the seas at all route sectors of the towage. Using the example of failed towage of the vessel “D.D.” we can show that choosing proper tactics for the arrangements of the object towage at all route stages using information on “weather windows” would exclude any damages of the towing object which amounted to 900 million roubles. In case of “dry” transportation of a drilling platform being loaded with overhanging parts on the barge under the conditions of rolling we can evidence possible entering of the overhanging parts into the water, appearance of additional loading at fastenings from additional force of floatage and slamming. “Project of marine operation” should determine the limitations on the basis of navigability of the barge with a drilling platform loaded in particular for the cases of entering of the hanging parts into the water under the circumstances of rolling. Practical calculations of rolling amplitude for «E» barge with the loaded drilling platform «A» have proved feasibility of this calculation model.
Размер файла: 382Kb
Korobchinskiy V.A., Dyatchenko S.V., Kostyuk I.V.Preliminary design of double – deck medium – tonnage trawler for the regions of Russian North (Abstract)
The paper reviews questions of the concept formation of domestic medium fishing trawlers.The system analysis of double-deck medium fishing trawlers and trawler-seiners was carried out. Their basic elements and regularities of change of these elements were defined. The analysis of their architectural design was made. Ways of efficiency improvement of the existing fishing vessels were developed. Design objectives are defined and technical specifications for development of the project of the medium fishing trawler are developed for the regions of Russian North. Rationale for the exterior of the medium fishing trawler, its main dimensions and the ship form is provided. Requirements to the power, hydrodynamic and extracting technological complexes are set. Crew size, its volumes and lodging are substantiated. The preliminary design of the medium trawler for the areas of Russian North with high technical and economic performance was developed.
Размер файла: 943Kb
Leshchinskiy M.B., Nikulin T.R.Expansion of technological potential of the water electrolysis generator (Abstract)
Traditional technology of gas-flame works has a number of drawbacks, such as a high price of cylinders recharging, the need for its transportation to the site, a ban on the placement of the gas tanks indoors, high levels of air pollution and others related to the operation of reservoirs under pressure. The use of mobile water electrolysis generators can solve these problems. The article describes the results of preliminary technological tests on the application of hydrogen-oxygen flame generated by the water electrolysis generator in certain types of gas-flame operations. We investigated the strength properties of soldered joints obtained using several types of brazing solders and the possibility of using hydrogen-oxygen flame in coating fusion obtaing by coating with slip powder mixtures. Technological breakdown tests were carried out on flat samples produced by soldering. Destruction of the samples occurred at a solder, but the breaking strength was higher than the breakdown test of pure solder. Coating technology with a nitrocellulose binder was applied for the studying powder coatings. Test evaluationwas carried out by measuring the hardness of deposited materials. Hydrogen welding is characterized by slow uniform heating of metal, and in some cases, it leads to its use in welding production in soldering and surfacing works. Economic calculation of efficiency of replacement of traditional gas cylinder equipment with water electrolysis generators. Payback period of using hydrogen-oxygen generator is four-five month as compared with oxyacetylene equipment.
Размер файла: 573Kb

Earth and mathematical sciences

Volkhonskaya E.V., Lyson D.N.Comparative analysis of communication channel quality using 8-QAMradiosignals with different signal constellations against additive gaussian white noise (Abstract)
Algorithms of radio signals with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM-8) shaping, algorithms of the narrowband white Gaussian noise shaping and algorithms of QAM-8 radio signal and Gaussian noise additive mix passing process via main units of the quadrature receiver and estimates of bit error ratio (BER) developed and implemented in MathCad are reported in this paper. Сharacteristics of narrowband white Gaussian noise: histogram of the normalized model noise, histogram of the reduced initial phase, model noise of normalized spectral density, histogram of noise envelope and autocorrelation function of the normalized model noise are presented here.The article presents the 8-QAM signal constellations on the complex plane at the output of the quadrature detector for different signal to noise ratio after the calculation of the signal average value in the received code sequence. Calculations of BER are made for QAM-8 radio signal with different constellation diagram: rectangular, square and crosswise for signal to noise ratio between -3 and 14 dB. The analysis of the received model curves showed the 8-QAM signals with the most effective signal constellations. The changes of the relationship between bit error rate and signal to noise ratio are not linear.BER for 8-QAM signals with rectangular and square constellations are practically the same at all the SNR in the communication channel.Using 8-QAM signals with rectangular or square constellation provides acceptable BER in radio relay channels, which is about 0,02-0,05, for the SNR, 3dB less than the using 8-QAM with the crosswise constellation.
Размер файла: 370Kb
Sokolov A.N., Chubarenko B.V., Dikiy D.I.Simulation of storm situations in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland (Abstract)
The south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland which is located in the vicinity to the complex of protective structures (GLC) of St. Petersburg from flooding has been of great interest recently. In the area between Lebyazhe and B.Izhora villages, in particular, storms create a potential danger both for individual residential buildings and for transport infrastructure of the Lomonosov district of the Leningrad region. It would be useful to have a tool that can accurately calculate the levels of storm surge, waves and currents in the considered area. As such a tool the three-dimensional model including hydrodynamic and spectral-wave modules is offered in this paper. Since the distribution of wind speed and direction over the Baltic Sea can vary significantly, whereas in the model it is assumed to be constant within the entire computational domain, three options of computational domains are used. The first domain is the Gulf of Finland only, the second– the Gulf of Finland with the central part of the Baltic Sea, the third– the whole Baltic. This approach lets us estimate the impact of the areas extent for which the wind speed and direction can be regarded as practically constant at the level of storm surge, waves and currents. The model was carefully calibrated against the field measurements that enabled obtaining the tool with a satisfactory accuracy describing storm situations in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland. Simulations show possible situations that could be catastrophic for the coastal area.
Размер файла: 795Kb

Economy and Management

Polyakov R.K.Production internationalization: the basis of the economic system of the world economy (Abstract)
The article examines the main phases of a fundamental change of modern firms. Key integration processes in management are shown, which enabled the organization to build a modern transnational nature. We studied the driving forces of the industry in the world economy and the place of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the process of globalization. The analysis was based on annual reports World Investment Report UNCTAD. UNCTAD reports indicate that today TNCs determine the level and direction of international capital flows (flow of direct investments- FDI), contribute to the formation of international industrial and technological complexes, and their large-scale activities appear in the production internationalization. Contemporary approaches to the study of FDI impact on the perspective of the phenomenon of economic globalization are presented. The study has found that a characteristic feature of modern TNCs, is that today they play the role of the institutional production framework for a number of countries, and their internationalization communications are the main sources of FDI, the result of which becomes the transfer and implementation of innovative technologies. It was noted that the concept of TNC is now based on the standard formulation of UNCTAD according to which it is a company with its units (branches) in two or more countries capable of pursuing a coordinated policy in one or more decision making centers, as well as the parent company, which controls assets of other economic units by participating in their capital. This definition shows that with the help of FDI new businesses and branches can be established abroad, andusing them enables integration of certain products, making the company transnational. The main placement terms for the main divisions of multinational corporations are represented as well as the types of companies and their main characteristics.
Размер файла: 541Kb