KSTU NEWS №40 (2016)
BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND FISHING INDUSTRY
|Metalnikova K.V.||Obtaining sex revertants in salmons Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) (Abstract)|
In Russia works on the regulation of secondary sexual characteristics of fish was initiated in 1974. Research was first carried out with tilapia, and then in 1978-1996 with rainbow trout, steelhead salmon, hybrid trout (a local form of rainbow trout in Ukraine), and with bester using testosterone-propionate and methyltestosterone. The changes observed in the gonads of the experimental females were the result of more intensive metabolism, which was reflected not only on the structure of the gonads, but on the exterior of revertants as well. The processes of sex reversion among treated with analogs of testosterone fish continued after the end of fish feeding with hormones. BY experimental obtaining of trout with the gonads reversion, after bathing of trout embryos without generative traits in methyltestosterone solution ("Ishkhan" farm, the Chernovitskaya region, Ukraine) proved neurohumoral way of identification of secondary sexual characteristics of trout. The article gives a description of the natural processes upon receipt from O. mykyss of revertants and offspring from them. Revertants, when crossed with normal females, you can use a few years to obtain same-sex offspring from females. In the Krasnodar and Kaliningrad region offspring from revertants salmon have been obtained for at least two years. The offspring was not treated with hormones. The second generation of offspring from revertants has been obtained in the Kaliningrad region, proving non- genetic nature of the method used. One can use the offspring to restore populations and use cryopreserved sperm with the genome of the females from revertants .
|Naumenko E.N., Sudnik S.A.||Species diversity of cladocerans (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera Latreille, 1829) of the Kaliningrad region estuaries (review) (Abstract)|
An analytical review of the literature on species composition of cladocerans (CRUSTACEA: BRANCHIOPODA: CLADOCERA Latreille, 1829) of the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons of the Baltic Sea, which are the largest estuaries of the Kaliningrad region, is presented. Detailed investigations of the cladocerans species composition in the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons were carried out by the scientists of the University of K?nigsberg in the early XX century. During that period the cladocerans community of the Curonian Lagoon was characterized by a great variety and represented by 38 species which belonged to 25 genera. At the present day, cladocerans is represented by 34 species belonging to 23 genera. As a result of the investigations, 8 species and subspecies of cladocerans, which had not been previously indicated in the rotifer community composition of the Curonian Lagoon, were found. At the same time, compared with the data of the K?nigsberg scientists, 13 species and cladocerans subspecies did not occur as a part of the zooplankton composition. According to the German scientists, the cladocerans inhabiting the Vistula Lagoon were represented by 22 species and subspecies belonging to 16 genera. Nowadays cladocerans is represented by 17 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera. 3 taxa lower than rotifers genus that had never been recorded previously in this basin were found. At the same time, compared to the data of the last century, 11 species and subspecies of cladocerans have disappeared. There is a general trend of the species composition dynamics of cladocerans in the estuaries of the Kaliningrad region, associated with the reduction in prey species and predominance of small species. The invasion of the large predatory crustacean Cercopagis pengoi in the Vistula Lagoon led to the restructuring of the zooplankton community.
|Churova M.V., Meshcheryakova O.V., Aleksandrova A.M.,Nemova N.N.||Investigation of several biochemical and molecular-genetic parameters of growth rate of farmed rainbow trout (Parasalmo mykiss, Walb) (Abstract)|
The search of convenient, precise and informative markers allowing to indicate growth rate changes over a short period of time is of primary importance in investigation of growth processes. Biochemical and molecular-genetic parameters associated with protein synthesis in muscles are among such markers. The study was performed to assess the relationship between energy metabolism enzymes activities (cytochrome c oxidase, COX, lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) myosin gene expression (MyHC) and growth rate of rainbow trout (Parasalmo mykiss, Walb). The objectives of this study were: to compare parameters studied between two groups of fish with different growth rate; to test these indices in monitoring of growth rate of trout fed with different quantity of feed. The yearlings (1+) of trout were reared on fish farm on Onego Lake (Sortavala, the Republic of Karelia, Russia). The groups of large fast-growing and small slow-growing trouts were studied within the first objective. Two groups of trout fed with recommended quantity of feed (100%) and 80% of this amount was compared to study the effect of diet on growth rate. The COX, LDH and MyHC gene expression were higher among fast-growing fish than in slow-growing. These parameters indicated faster growth rate of trout in response to change of the feed quantity. The results allow suggesting that COX and LDH activities and myosin gene expression could be used as indicators of the growth rate.
|Shibaev L.V., Shibaev S.V., Mychkova A.V.||Growth rate of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus, L.) In the Curonian lagoon (Abstract)|
The article presents results of the study of individual growth rate of the whitefish in the Curonian Lagoon. The investigations were based on the observed length-age data and back calculation of growth. The problem of studying the growth is related to the fact that in the Lagoon whitefish is represented with only spawning part of the population aged 4-10 years, so the growth rate of the younger age groups is unknown. However, it is necessary to know its growth rate for artificial breeding of whitefish and artificial reproduction. Linear and weight growth parameters according to the obtained data is similar for males and females, and the growth curve is almost linear. The maximum age of males is eight years with the length of 47.7 cm and weight of 1399 g, for females the maximum age is 10 years with length of 57 cm and weight of 2498 g. Parameters have been estimated for the following equations: «length–weight» (W = 0.0055L^3.2479), «length – scale radius» ( R = 9.6724L + 1.5153) and Bertalanffy equation for the linear (L=95.1(1-e^(-0.081(t-0.15) ) )) and weight (W=18148(1-e^(-0.070(t-0.11) ) )^3) growth. Large values of L_? and W_? depend on specific set of input data, which is not represented with species older than 10 years. Back calculations have been performed by means of special methodology which allows to eliminate the influence of the Rosa Lee phenomenon. In general, growth rate of all generations of whitefish is very similar, the differences in the length of the same age groups do not exceed 1-2 cm. Comparative analysis shows that the growth of whitefish in the Curonian Lagoon is similar to those of other populations of whitefish in the waters of the southern Baltic. It is shown that one-year old whitefish reach 8 g of weight, which correlates with weight obtained in conditions of artificial breeding of fry for about 180 days. The results can be used to estimate optimal time of release of artificially brought fry into the Curonian Lagoon that was obtained in conditions of artificial reproduction.
FOOD PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGY
|Isakova T.S., Mezenova O.Ja.||Technology of smoked poultry products using phytochemicals (Abstract)|
Poultry production and processing is being actively developed in the Kaliningrad region. However, range of poultry products is limited. Development of new products and release of whole muscle smoked specialities using new bacterial preparations and phytochemicals is of great interest. The components of plants in the form of natural extracts and infusions have specific flavour, antioxidant, antiseptic, and structural and functional properties, contain colouring components; many plant substances are biologically active. The paper justifies improving of conventional technology of making smoked products using bacterial preparation PB - MP based on lactic acid bacteria and bifidus bacteria, infusion and medicinal herbs balm through the example of chilled chicken breasts. The influence of phytocomponents and technological factors on the enzyme activity of starter cultures has been studied, and a rational correlation between microorganisms in complex leaven has been tested. Composition of a curing mixture to be injected into the meat of poultry before smoking has been substantiated. The technological scheme of the manufacturing of uncooked poultry products enriched with phytocomponents has been elaborated. Comparative histological studies of the structure of meat have been made. Quality of experimental and control products has been apprised. Improvement of organoleptic and rheological properties of experimental products, intensification of dehydration and decrease of pH and water activity, increased digestibility and biological value of proteins as well as increased content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and yield of finished products has been established. Shelf life and safety of products within 40 days has been substantiated. Technical documentation of the products has been developed.
|Pritykina N.А., Petiy I.А.||Manufacturing technology development of a manufactured meat product of high readiness (Abstract)|
In the current economic context, production trends of meat products are increasingly focused on the development of quick and easily cooked products that will be economically acceptable, caloric and at the same time balanced in amino acid content. The most relevant is the research on integrated waste-free use of meat raw materials and the development of new industrial processes with a wide range of multicomponent products of a functional purpose on meat basis; on increase of the shelf life of the product, on preservation of product quality during storage. This problem can be solved by the presented science-based technology of manufactured meat products of high readiness. Using analytical data, computer simulation methods, the choice of raw meat which is a part of the recipe is substantiated. Balance of raw meat, which is part of the formulation of the amino-acid score (97%), and the mixing ratio of raw meat - beef, PSE pork, turkey meat, beef heart was 1.2: 1 2.5: 1. Parameters of processing meat raw material for production of a product with maximum preservation of useful properties and structural-mechanical characteristics are presented; in particular, feasibility of massaging modes and gentle heat treatment are developed and proved. The mode excluding the increase in losses during the heat treatment, appearance of rubber-like consistency and “smudging” of the texture pattern on the cut, as well as an increase in the level of microbiological contamination was the following massing mode: 20 min. work, 10 min. rest at 5.5 rev / min. with vacuum of 95% during the operation of the tumbler and 60% at rest, followed by thermal treatment in the form of stage heating at the temperatures of 65-80 ° C. Further cooling up to a temperature of 6 ° C and freezing to the core temperature of minus 18 ° C and storage at the same temperature guarantee up to 12 months of shelf life of the manufactured product.
|Erlikhman V.N.||Thermodynamic assessment of the impact of protein denaturation on fish freezing (Abstract)|
The paper presents the impact of protein denaturation due to dehydration of combined water on reversibility and thermal load in freezing of products. To obtain complex assessment of process reversibility and increase of thermal load the following assumptions are admitted: a conventional product with water content of 80%, protein- 18%, lipid – 1%, minerals- 1% and ground freezing point of tissue juices- 1?C; regularity of change of combined water content in the product in refrigeration are identical to experimental results of S.Charm and P.Moodi. Generalization of empirical data of combined water content in fish given in literature and referred to different constituents of chemical composition is performed. The presented empirical data are recalculated according to general content of water in the product. The average quantity of combined water content is defined which is close to the one recommended by D.G.Ryutov at determining the share of frozen out water. Mathematical dependence for determining the share of frozen and unfrozen parts of water depending on temperature is established. Calculations of additional thermal load per refrigeration unit in freezing of dehydrated combined water is presented which is equal to 11.09 kJ/kg. Non-reversibility of refrigeration process for both product and product – refrigerant system in terms of increasing entropy at the ultimate average product temperature - 20?C and refrigerating medium temperature - 40?C are equal to 42 J/(kg x K) and 6 J/(kg x K) correspondingly. It is demonstrated that refrigeration unit capacity in tons per hour corresponds to additional heat load of 3.08 kWt?(t/h) and additional thermal load in a total cold consumption for refrigeration lies within 1.8…2.4%.., depending on the type of refrigeration unit. Calculation results demonstrate that protein denaturation process does not influence much on thermal load increase which is compensated by the refrigeration capacity of refrigeration units envisaged at its designing.
AGRICULTURE AND NATURE MANAGEMENT
|Andriichuk A.V., Tkachenko G.M., Tkachova I.V.||Effect of physical exercise on pro- and antioxidant balance in the blood of eventing horses (Abstract)|
Eventing is one of the most rigorous equestrian sports, requiring much endurance, courage, steadiness and mobility of the nervous processes, high fitness level and huge functional capacity of horses. The aim of the current study was to determine the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, carbonyl derivates of oxidatively modified proteins), antioxidant defenses enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, ceruloplasmin activity) in the blood of eventing horses before and after exercise. Nine well trained equine athletes aged 8.3±1.6 years were used in this study. All horses had been in regular training for several years. Our results suggest that exercise causes different consequences on oxidative stress biomarkers in the plasma and erythrocytes of horses. Exercise leads to significant increase of TBARS level in the plasma, while in erythrocytes it does not. The significant increase of TBARS level in the plasma is the result of exercise-induced oxidative stress. This difference in TBARS level between pre-exercise and post-exercise period is most likely a consequence of different levels of oxidative stress occurring in the tissues and in the blood. Significant decrease in the aldehydic derivatives of protein oxidation in the plasma after exercise was noted. Exercise can induce the activity of the proteasome complex, which is significantly involved in the degradation of oxidatively modified proteins. Thus, in our study, decrease of carbonyl derivatives in the plasma after the exercise is the result of exercise-induced adaptation. We have found a significant decrease of ceruloplasmin level after exercise indicating elimination of reactive oxygen species during exercises.
|Antsiferova О.А.||Seasonal dynamics of soil aggregate of different degrees of hydromorphism (Abstract)|
Research has been conducted on a two-year abandoned field of Zelenogradsk in the Kaliningrad region within the Sambiyskaya hilly morainic plain. The dynamics of the aggregate composition of soils from April to December 2013 in 12 soil areas of various degrees of hydromorphism. It was found that the ratio of the aggregation and disaggregation is specific for a particular soil area. Maximum aggregation in most soils is observed at the time when moisture is in the optimum range (70 - 100 % of field capacity). The structure of gleysolic loamy and sandy burozem (physical clay content of 15 - 20%) is unstable. Under the influence of atmospheric precipitation (rainfall), even under the cover of herbaceous vegetation soil aggregates soak. Correlation strength between moisture content and structure in burozems of gleysolic peaks and slopes varies from weak to medium. In sod gley soils correlation between the coefficient of structural properties and field moisture is strong. Moisture in these soils is a determining factor of aggregation in the course of time. The level of the soil structure is the integrative result of the regime of moisture and humus content. While selecting soil samples in wet period following its drying in the laboratory aggregates coalesce in cloddy mass. Therefore, as a result of dry sieving followed by data processing a low structure coefficient is obtained. Selection of soil samples for analysis in order to assess soil structure in the region should be carried out in the period from May to August for soil of slopes and uplands. Soil sampling run should be adjusted to weather conditions. The optimum sampling run for sod gley soils is narrower and is in July -September in an average rainfall year. Moisture regime of particular soils should be taken into account
|Antsiferova O.A.,Stelnikov A.V.||Features of soil morphology in catenas of sambiyskaya hilly plain (Abstract)|
Research has been conducted on two key areas in Zelenogradsk of the Kaliningrad region within the Sambiyskaya hilly morainic plain. Morphological structure of ten soil profiles in two сatenas has been studied. Alternation of soils in space within the catenas has been established: on hilltops weakly gleysolic burozems > on slopes, burozems which degree of gleyization goes up from heads to bottoms of the slopes > sod-gley soils in closed depressions. Morphohromatic differentiation of the soil profile on the horizon increases with the increase of hydromorphism. For studying of catenas spatial and vertical heterogeneity of soil granulometric composition is characteristic. This trait comes from soil-forming rocks. Burozems on hilltops are gleyed due to primary lithological (presence of heavy weakly-permeable layers and lenses), and secondary genetic reasons (silting of middle and lower parts of the profile as a result of illimerization). The presence of clay layers at the slopefoots causes backing of alluvial slope waters. In such circumstances, sod-podzolic highly gleysolic or gley soils are formed on the slopes. Burozems of hills do not contain carbonates on the profile. The soil-forming rocks in the sod-gley soils of the closed depressions are calcareous. Carbonates in the form of limestone rocks and mealy clusters occur at 90 - 130 cm. The clay layers under the arable layer in the sod-gleyed soils impede water filtration down the profile, resulting in an intermittent surface flooding of soils in the closed depressions. Soil combinations of a mosaic-sequence type are characteristic of catenas.
|Bedareva O.M., Bedarev V.S., Kalinina E.A., Muracheva L.S., Troyan T.N., Matyukha A.V., Pashkova V.V.||Stability of tree plantations in conditions of transit areas of Kaliningrad (Abstract)|
Dendroflora of cities formed with the active human intervention is characterized by a richness and heterogeneity. The reason is, first of all, a wide variety of urban coenosis, in formation of which participate both types that meet zonal criteria and strangers. In urban greening the use of species of different geographical origin, grown in original ecological environment creates tessellation of vegetation cover. Integral assessment of the adaptive capacity of each particular species can be considered not only their ability of regeneration (seed, coppice), but their stability in the conditions of man-caused impact. The article presents the results of continuous inventory (No. in the diagram, breed, trunk diameter, characteristics of life state) of alley plantations of dendroflora along the roads; the species composition of tree plantations is defined. On the basis of the categories scale, each sample is classified as the category of state; recommendations on the optimal use of species for greening of streets. There are 3 groups of objects (ten streets) of the city according to the degree of man-made load: high traffic volume, low traffic volume, average traffic volume. The main causes of large drying, thinning and tree die-off in the city limits include: low agricultural technology, excessive soil compaction, mechanical damage and, as a result, high degree of vulnerability to pests and diseases. Among identified entomo and phytopathological factors affecting the condition and decorative value of tree species in these objects, the most dangerous are canker and vascular diseases that cause weakening, loss of decorative value and drying. Poor monitoring of the phytosanitary status of the planting material as well as the untimeliness of sanitary felling contribute to their dissemination.
|Gorodetskaya E. А.||Influence of plasma-microwave processing on seeds (Abstract)|
In modern plant growing special attention must be paid to processing methods for dormancy breaking of seeds and planting material to receive earlier good and leveled sprouts laying the foundation for yield gain and recovery of early and high-quality production. Scientists develop new agromethods and technical means for preseeding stimulation of seeds to improve their sowing qualities. Results of long-term scientific research and on-the-farm tests show that for the achievement of this purpose physical factors can be successfully used: electric and magnetic fields, and also plasma and currents of various frequency. Search of impact methods on seed and landing material to improve adaptive properties of sprouts are actual and significant. Techniques and processing methods of preseeding stimulation of seeds based on application of highly toxic chemicals and use of hydrothermal treatment are connected with high labour requirements and danger of return to a human through biological chains. The method of plasma-microwave processing of grain, bean and aromatic crops raising power of seeds and plants, and providing their preparation for industrial cultivation and steady storage is presented. The object of our research was the change of agronomical properties of seeds after application of methods of electrophysical impact, in particular, plasma low-temperature. It is shown that low-intensity microwave electromagnetic influence can be used as a mediator of receptors of seeds cells starting the intracellular mechanisms leading to improvement of their properties: increase of germination speed and rate, stimulation of shoot growth. Similar researches are branded and allow speaking about transfer of plant growing to the integrated system of agriculture.
|Darinskaya T.N., Bedareva O.M., Bedarev V.S., Muracheva L.S., Troyan T.N., Sidorenko E.V.||Assessment of flooding, waterlogging, overgrowing of agricultural lands in the Gvardeyskiy district of the Kaliningrad region using remote sensing techniques (Abstract)|
The paper considers a number of issues related to study methods of space images interpretation in the evaluation of soil and vegetation; analysis of the materials of geobotanical survey based on archival data and personal observations; compilation of maps of waterlogging and overgrowing of farmlands in the Gvardeyskiy district of the Kaliningrad region; changes in the species composition of vegetation on anthropogenically transformed lands. The article is devoted to the assessment of flooding, waterlogging and overgrowing of the agricultural lands using remote sensing techniques. The object of the research was agricultural land in the Gvardeyskiy district of the Kaliningrad region. As a basis for creation of cartographic works satellite images of various years were used as well as stock materials of geobotanical and soil research and personal observations. Statement of purpose and objectives of the study is related to the current problem – assessment of the degree of anthropogenic transformation of vegetation and soils under changing moisture regime. This problem is especially important for the Kaliningrad region, because due to long-term intensive management of vegetation its biological diversity, resource significance and functional role in the biosphere has significantly decreased, and in some areas anthropogenic changes led to environmental problems. To solve environmental problems in the region and to develop environmental management strategies it is necessary to study modern trends of soils and vegetation development at different levels of its structural organization: cenopopulation, phytocenotic, ecosystem, landscape, regional. The paper presents an analysis of materials of geobotanical survey based on archival data and personal observations; compiled maps of waterlogging and overgrowing of farmlands in the Gvardeyskiy district of the Kaliningrad region; identified changes in the species composition of vegetation on anthropogenically transformed soils.
|Klyuchko T.A., Orlov E.K.||Methodology for experimental verification of equality between peripheral force and frictional force on the surface of the traction drum of the friction-type fishery mechanism in selection of fishing gear (Abstract)|
The main parameter of a friction-type fishery mechanism (FFM) is the driving force. It is assumed that the driving force of FFM is a peripheral force Fcir on the surface of the traction drum which is created by the drive. If the process of selecting a fishing gear (FG) goes without slipping, it is widely accepted that the mechanism thrust is equal to the frictional force Ffric between FG and a traction drum. In order to verify this statement, a special methodology has been developed and tested allowing to solve the following problems: using the experimental unit to reproduce frictional interaction between the traction drum and sample fishery cordage; to measure during the experiment phase current Iph and phase voltage Uph in the electric motor during no-load operation and under load; to measure tension strength S1 and S2 in the parts of cordage; using the results of the experiments to calculate the peripheral force Fcir and the frictional force Ffric on the surface of the traction drum. The methodology has been tested using frictional interaction of a nylon rope and a rubber-covered drum. Using strain-gauge station MIC-200 a simultaneous record has been performed of the phase current Iph, phase voltage Uph and S1 during the time t of the experiment. The results have been used in the calculations, which have showed that Ffric?Fcir. The main conclusion is that this technique can be applied in experimental studies on the traction force of the friction-type fishery mechanism in order to create a control system that ensures the process of selecting fishing gear without slipping.
|Naumov V.A., Akhmedov I.M.||Calculation of shape and efforts in ropes with regard to their elasticity (Abstract)|
As a rule, calculation of shape and tension forces in the cable parts of fishing gears does not imply elastic properties. In the earlier works of the authors the relation between the load and the elongation of the ropes from synthetic materials was obtained. This allowed to define the problem of the equilibrium state of the rope of neutral buoyancy in homogeneous flow of water taking into account elasticity. The results of the numerical solution of the system of equilibrium equations for the ropes made of polypropylene, polysteel and polyamide showed that if the velocity does not exceed 1 m/s, and the bending deflection of the unstretched rope is more than 10 % of the distance between the points of the rope attachment, with an error of less than 5% it is not necessary to consider the elastic properties of the rope. This is because the resulting tension forces are small. A completely different situation emerges at small values of the rope deflection. In this case, the shape of the rope can be considered parabolic, and the problem can be solved approximately. Consideration of the elasticity significantly affects calculation results. This effect increases with decrease of the rope diameter and the increase in velocity. Calculation of tension force of the rope made of polymeric materials in the flow at small bending deflection without considering elasticity may lead to errors of more than 300 %.
SHIP BUILDING, MACHINERY AND POWER-ENGINEERING
|Korobchinskiy V.A., Dyatchenko S.V.||Recognition of basic elements and characteristics of double-deck average fishing trawlers at the initial stages of design (Abstract)|
The concept of creation of the modern domestic fishing fleet provides the development of new projects of ships, among which the important place occupied by average double-deck trawlers. It is known that the main method of definition of elements of the projected vessel is the decision of system of the equations of design, and for decrease in volumes of project works and performance of necessary comparisons of versions of decisions, it is expedient to use analogs of vessels and a prototype. In order to more fully and accurately take into account the development of new vessel the best technical solutions implemented in certain projects of ships required detailed statistical analysis of the main characteristics and elements of these vessels, as well as their technical - economic and operational performance. The lack of statistical data for this type of vessels in the press hampers the work associated with the development of new projects. This article presents the results of some studies to identify the main dimensions, total displacement, coefficients of the general completeness and power availability, relative length, coordinates of the center of magnitude in the early stages of designing the ship.
|Korotkaya E.I., Sutyrin V.I., Tananykin S.V.||Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic damping effect in two-stage amortization systems of machinery, mechanisms and equipment (Abstract)|
Hull structures are characterized by extra dense frequency spectrum of fluctuations, and in this connection an existing practice of application of technological ways of vibration reduction appears rather problematic. Among ways for vibration reduction it is necessary to emphasize vibration isolation which requires formation of vibration isolation system, assignment of characteristics of its elements and efficiency evaluation. In design of vibration isolation it is important to exclude resonant fluctuations and maximum damp oscillatory processes. We have proposed a method for reduction of vibration which aims to improve the efficiency of two-stage vibration insulation of an object in the broad frequency range of oscillation. Comparison of amplitudes of the forced fluctuations near resonant frequency at vibration isolation has been conducted by means of two-stage amortization of an object by a massive body and by a reservoir with water instead of a massive body. Influence of the dimensions and properties of the damper structure on vibration characteristics of vibration isolation system has been considered. A significant damping effect of the liquid inside a vibrating metal structure has been revealed. The results of the proposed method of amortization have been presented and analyzed.
ECONOMY AND MANAGEMENT OF AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY
|Sergeev L.I.||Dynamics of parameters and econometric modeling of the indicators of financial and economic performance of the fishery industry of Russia (Abstract)|
The paper presents generalized state and dynamics of the main financial and economic indicators of the functioning of the fishery industry of Russia in 2003 - 2014. It considers the dynamics and analyses volume of catch in the fishery water bodies of Russia. Ageing of fleet is emphasized. In order to improve quantitative methods of planning and management in the industry, econometric forms are proposed for building the dependence of financial and economic indicators on performance results. Exogenous and endogenous indicators of the fishery industry of Russia are summarized. Correlation dependences of the industry revenue from the cost of the key assets, production cost, catch volumes, profit, capital investment, number of employees and other key financial and economic indicators are calculated. Pairwise degree of interrelation of the main indicators of financial and economic performance is analyzed, on account of which a conclusion is drawn on the degree of interrelation between particular indicators. Major interrelations between certain financial and economic indicators of the industry performance are reviewed. Econometric models are built which show interrelation between revenue, profit, production cost, employment of resources and other indicators of the industry. Economic and logical interpretation of the revealed dependencies are presented, which gives the opportunity to summarize the impact of the main input parameters such as investment, number of employees, cost of funds, etc. on the industry performance. Impact of production sales on the revenue of the enterprises in the industry is evaluated, which emphasizes the relevance of taking into account the dynamics of natural –cost proportions in generalization of the development problems of the fishery industry. Conclusions on possibility and necessity of using the obtained dependences in applied research and planning of the activity of the fishery industry in Russia are given.